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Title: Economic adjustment policies and the environment : a case study of Brazil
Author: Young, Carlos Eduardo Frickmann
ISNI:       0000 0000 5214 4322
Awarding Body: University of London
Current Institution: University College London (University of London)
Date of Award: 1997
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Adjustment programmes in developing countries have been the subject of intense debate since the debt crisis in the early 1980s. Consideration of environmental consequences of adjustment policies has added a new dimension to the discussion. This thesis focuses on this issue, examining the links between adjustment policies and the use of natural resources. The first part of the thesis comprises a review of the international literature and the development of a macroeconomic model relating effective demand and the use of natural resources. The second part is dedicated to the analysis of environmental consequences of adjustment policies in Brazil. It starts with a brief review of macroeconomic policy in Brazil since the oil crisis in the mid-1970s. Then three environmental problems are looked at: deforestation in the Amazon, mineral depletion and industrial water and air pollution. In the three cases there are important links between adjustment policies and the worsening of environmental conditions. The thesis suggests two broad conclusions. First, while the final outcome of the adjustment policies may be positive or negative, a failure to integrate macroeconomic models with sustainability concerns has meant that existing 'models' of adjustment have not been able to identify the potential inconsistency between the requirements of macroeconomic reform and resource conservation. From the adjustment country perspective, consumption of natural capital is a simple and effective response to the requirements of short term improvement in the economic performance. The second conclusion is that adjustment programmes should be designed so that short-term disruption is at least partly offset by mitigating environmental policies.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Economics & economic theory