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Title: Women in educational management in Sarawak : a study of traditional and professional challenges
Author: Razali, Siti Katizah
ISNI:       0000 0001 3510 0368
Awarding Body: University of Bristol
Current Institution: University of Bristol
Date of Award: 1998
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This exploratory study examined how women managers in education in Sarawak combine their traditional and professional roles and deal with potential role conflict. The study is set in the context of an increasing number of women managers in education in Sarawak and the issues this raises for their support, if they are to harmonise their roles and advance professionally. The aim of the study is to furnish policy makers at the national and state level with information to formulate a policy document which could be adopted in preparing a strategy for the advancement of women managers, taking into account their dual roles. Both quantitative and qualitative paradigms are employed to provide depth and breadth. The postal survey questionnaire was sent to all the 109 women in the target population: all women heads and deputies in schools, teacher training colleges and the State Education Department. There was a 91.7% response rate. Additionally, eight women managers were interviewed in-depth, together with seven spouses and three other senior women in education, who are influential nationally. The eight women managers also completed time-log diaries for a week. Respondents in the survey questionnaire included managers who, at one time, had rejected promotion. This enabled the perceptions of those who had experienced difficulties in relation to promotion to be analysed, as well as those who had not. Combining the quantitative and qualitative approaches meant that they complemented, supplemented and illuminated each other. The study did not aim, initially, to explore the cultural dimension but it emerged during the interviews that their specific cultural origins (Malay, Iban and Chinese) were a significant determinant of the women managers' perceptions of their dual roles. Indigenous culture was not found to be a barrier to advancement but the research has revealed that when studying women in educational management consideration of individual cultural contexts gives additional insights into their perceptions of their two roles. Interviews with the spouses revealed corresponding views to those of their wives pertaining to women's traditional roles; they also saw complementary roles in the partnership. The close support of the extended family is a significant factor in the study. For the women studied, the boundaries between their personal and professional roles were not clear-cut. Work invaded their personal lives and family needs were perceived as paramount when considering promotion. Values relating to caring and nurturing imbued their professional and personal lives. The different cultural and environmental experiences of the women managers contributed to their varied perceptions of role conflict. Many had developed coping strategies which reduced such conflict and supported their successful performance as workers, wives, mothers and daughters. Impediments to the advancement of women managers are identified and possible courses of future action suggested. Implications for policy makers at the Ministry of Education and State Education Department as well as for future research are highlighted
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Role conflict ; Extended family ; Women managers