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Title: The effects of saline pumping water on freshwater invertebrate communities
Author: Bird, Linda Margaret
ISNI:       0000 0001 3465 000X
Awarding Body: Nottingham Polytechnic
Current Institution: Nottingham Trent University
Date of Award: 1989
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Saline effluents associated with coal mining affect many rivers in the English East Midlands. The effects of one such effluent, with a salinity close to that of sea water, were investigated by invertebrate sampling and chemical monitoring. Mathematical analyses showed that elevated salinity reduced faunal diversity and altered species composition. Some species were indicative of increased salinity, including Lumbricillus rival is. Pavanais litoralis and Gammarus tigrlnus. A computer program was devised to predict species lists for saline affected sites from environmental data. The program was tested and used to predict changes in fauna which would result from an increase in salinity. Life history studies in the field and laboratory were designed to explain the distribution of several species in relation to salinity. Gammarus tigrinus was more r selected than G. pulex. It was also able to reproduce in fresh water and would probably remain in the rivers of the Midlands if saline pollution was eliminated. Tubitex tubifex was unable to reproduce above a salinity of 56mM NaCl. Lumbricillus rivalis had optimal reproductive success at 56mM NaCl, and was found to replace Tubificidae at saline sites. In physiological experiments the salinity tolerance of freshwater species such as Gammarus pulex was similar in NaCl solution and in sea water. The estuarine Gammarus tigrinus and Gammarus zaddachi were better able to tolerate salinity in seawater, when lOmM potassium was present. Recommendations were made for less harmful disposal of saline effluents. The most economical method may be to release dilute effluents, provided the concentration in the receiving river remains below 14mM chloride.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available