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Title: Mixed salt crystallisation fouling
Author: Helalizadeh, Abbas
ISNI:       0000 0001 3552 2931
Awarding Body: University of Surrey
Current Institution: University of Surrey
Date of Award: 2002
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The main purpose of this investigation was to study the mechanisms of mixed salt crystallisation fouling on heat transfer surfaces during convective heat transfer and sub-cooled flow boiling conditions. To-date no investigations on the effects of operating parameters on the deposition of mixtures of calcium sulphate and calcium carbonate, which are the most common constituents of scales formed on heat transfer surfaces, have been reported. As part of this research project, a substantial number of experiments were performed to determine the mechanisms controlling deposition. Fluid velocity, heat flux, surface and bulk temperatures, concentration of the solution, ionic strength, pressure and heat transfer surface material were varied systematically. After clarification of the effect of these parameters on the deposition process, the results of these experiments were used to develop a mechanistic model for prediction of fouling resistances, caused by crystallisation of mixed salts, under convective heat transfer and subcooled flow boiling conditions. It was assumed that the deposition process of calcium sulphate and calcium carbonate takes place in two successive events. These events are the combined effects related to transport phenomena and chemical kinetics. The effect of the extra deposition created on the heat transfer surface due to sub-cooled flow boiling was considered by inclusion of an enhancement factor. The newly developed model takes into account the effects of all important parameters on scaling phenomena and also considers the simultaneous precipitation and competition of various minerals in the scale formation process. Model predictions were compared with the measured experimental data when calcium sulphate and calcium carbonate form and deposit on the heat transfer surface simultaneously. While deviations ranging from 6% to 25% between model predictions and measured experimental data can be considered good in the context of such a complex process, fouling morphology is clearly a factor to be considered in more detail. This is particularly problematic in the context of more complex fouling solutions encountered in industry. Furthermore, the crystalline samples were analysed using Scanning Electron Microscopy, X- Ray Diffraction and Ion Chromatography techniques. Fractal analysis performed on Scanning Electron Microscopy photographs of the deposits was used to quantify deposit characteristics by introducing a new quantity called the fractal dimension.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Thermodynamics