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Title: An extension of constraints theory related to the consumer behaviour of skiing
Author: Hudson, Simon
ISNI:       0000 0001 3583 5903
Awarding Body: University of Surrey
Current Institution: University of Surrey
Date of Award: 1998
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Considerable behavioural research has suggested that it is important to understand the constraining as well as the facilitating factors when attempting to identify potential clients for specific tourism activities. If personal constraints can be surmounted the likelihood of participation increases. In many tourism enterprises - skiing being no exception - the challenge is to transform latent or potential demand into existing demand. In this thesis, the author operationalised the negotiation of constraints model proposed by Crawford et al. (1991), who contend that there are psychological orientations, or intrapersonal constraints, that may prevent individuals from experiencing higher level constraints. Therefore individuals who are most affected by intrapersonal constraints would be less likely to want to participate in a given leisure activity and therefore would not reach higher order constraints (interpersonal and structural constraints). A qualitative approach was used to develop a detailed and accurate categorisation of constraints which was built into a questionnaire, that was subsequently completed by a sample of 412 individuals. Analysis of the qualitative research showed that non-skiers reported a high proportion of intrapersonal constraints, whereas skiers were constrained by time, family or economic factors. Analysis of the questionnaires indicated that these economic factors were the major constraints for both groups. When the two groups were compared, not surprisingly non-skiers reported higher constraints for all statements apart from their fear of lack of snow. T-tests indicated that their differences were significantly greater for intrapersonal constraints, supporting the findings from the qualitative research. Factor analysis with an oblique rotation of the 30 constraints resulted in the extraction of three factors which appeared to correspond to the three constraint typologies, suggesting that the model of leisure constraints is tenable. A metamodel was used to determine the possible existence of a hierarchy of constraints, and the results did not support the existing hierarchical model. Based on these results, the author proposed a new model of leisure constraints, showing a relationship between existing participants and intrapersonal constraints, suggesting that there is a clear distinction between the intrapersonal constraints of participants and non-participants. The new model also indicates that if intrapersonal constraints are successfully negotiated, then structural constraints will be the next stage in the hierarchy, and not interpersonal constraints. The author suggests that consumer behaviour models of the future should acknowledge the constraints facing consumers in the decision making process, and should not assume that attitude leads directly to purchase. A new model of consumer behaviour in tourism is proposed. The author recommends that different marketing strategies should be implemented for both skiers and non-skiers to influence participation. Based on the primary and secondary research, a variety of strategies are proposed, each targeting a different segment of the market. The author concludes that the skiing industry needs more sophisticated marketing policies not just to maintain loyal skiers, but more importantly to attract new ones into the market.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Economics & economic theory