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Title: Extended defects in SiGe device structures formed by ion implantation
Author: Cristiano, Filadelfo
ISNI:       0000 0001 3549 1194
Awarding Body: University of Surrey
Current Institution: University of Surrey
Date of Award: 1998
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The use of SiGe/Si heterostructures in the fabrication of electronic devices results in an improvement of the device performances with respect to bulk silicon. Ion implantation has been proposed as one of the possible technologies to produce these structures and, thus, the aim of this work is to develop an ion beam technology to fabricate strained SiGe heterostructures. The formation of extended defects in SiGe alloy layers formed by high dose Ge+ ion implantation followed by Solid Phase Epitaxial Growth (SPEG) has been investigated by transmission electron microscopy. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy has also been used to determine the chemical composition and the crystalline quality of the synthesised structures. In addition, X-ray diffraction has been used to evaluate the strain level in selected samples. Two different structures have been studied in this project. The first consisted of "all-implanted" layers, where the Ge+ implants were followed in some cases by additional implants of Si+ and/or C+ ions, prior to SPEG, to investigate methods to inhibit defect formation. The second was achieved by capping the ion beam synthesised SiGe alloy layer by the deposition of a thin film of silicon, in order to realise structures compatible with device dimensions. Single crystal device worthy SiGe alloy layers have been achieved by implantation of Ge+ ions at energies ranging from 70 keV to 400 keV, where the only extended defects observed are EOR defects at a depth correspondent to the a/c interface formed during the Ge+ implant. In some cases, "hairpin" dislocations have also been observed in the vicinity of the EOR defects and extending up to the surface. Both types of defects are annihilated after post-amorphisation with 500 keV Si+ and replaced with dislocation loops at a depth of about 1 fj,m. For each Ge+ implantation energy a critical value of the peak germanium concentration exists above which the structures relax through the formation of stacking faults or "hairpin" dislocations nucleated in the vicinity of the peak of the germanium concentration depth profile and extending up to the surface. A critical value of the elastic energy stored in the structures (~300 mJ/m2) has been determined above which ion beam synthesised SiGe alloys relax, independently of the implantation energy. This empirical approach has been found to successfully account for the results obtained in this work as well as in many other studies reported in the literature. "Hairpin" dislocations formed under different experimental conditions have been investigated by plan view TEM and have been found to have the same crystallographic orientation () and Burgers vector (b= a ). Their formation has been explained within a "strain relaxation model". For a regrowth temperature of 700° C, all samples investigated by XRD have been found to be almost fully strained, including samples containing relaxation-induced defects, indicating that, under these conditions, the energy transferred to the defects is very low. C+ co-implantation has been successfully used to reduce both relaxation-induced defects and EOR dislocation loops. It is noted that a mixed technology entailing both layer deposition and ion implantation to produce the Si/SiGe/Si device structures requires extra process steps to control surface contaminations, pre cleaning and/or native oxide formation, resulting in increased fabrication costs. In this work an " all-implanted" route to the synthesis of Si/SiGe/Si device structures is therefore described, which exploits all of the advantages given by ion implantation.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Heterostructures; Solid Phase Epitaxial Growth