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Title: Channel estimators for HF radio links
Author: Hariharan, S.
ISNI:       0000 0001 3531 8527
Awarding Body: Loughborough University of Technology
Current Institution: Loughborough University
Date of Award: 1988
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The thesis is concerned with the estimation of the sampled impulse-response (SIR), of a time-varying HF channel, where the estimators are used in the receiver of a 4800 bits/s, quaternary phase shift keyed (QPSK) system, operating at 2400 bauds with an 1800 Hz carrier. T= FIF modems employing maximum-likelihood detectors at the receiver require accurate knowledge of the SIR of the channel. With this objective in view, the thesis considers a number of channel estimation techniques, using an idealised model of the data transmission system. The thesis briefly describes the ionospheric propagation medium and the factors affecting the data transmission over BF radio. It then presents an equivalent baseband model of the I-IF channel, that has three separate Rayleigh fading paths (sky waves), with a 2Hz frequency spread and transmission delays of 0,1.1 and 3 milliseconds relative to the first sky wave. Estimation techniques studied are, the Gradient estimator, the Recursive leastsquares (RLS) Kalman estimator, the Adaptive channel estimators, the Efficient channel estimator ( that takes into account prior knowledge of the number of fading paths in the channel ), and the Fast Transversal Filter (F-FF), estimator (which is a simplified form of the Kalman estimator). Several new algorithms based on the above mentioned estimation techniques are also proposed. Results of the computer simulation tests on the performance of the estimators, over a typical worst channel, are then presented. The estimators are reasonably optimized to achieve the minimum mean-square estimation error and adequate allowance has been made for stabilization before the commencement of actual measurements. The results, therefore, represent the steady-state performance of the estimators. The most significant result, obtained in this study, is the performance of the Adaptive estimator. When the characteristics of the channel are known, the Efficient estimators have the best performance and the Gradient estimators the poorest. Kalman estimators are the most complex and Gradient estimators are the simplest. Kalman estimators have a performance rather similar to that of Gradient estimators. In terms of both performance and complexity, the Adaptive estimator lies between the Kalman and Efficient estimators. FTF estimators are known to exhibit numerical instability, for which an effective stabilization technique is proposed. Simulation tests have shown that the mean squared estimation error is an adequate measurement for comparison of the performance of the estimators.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: High frequency radio band ; Electric circuits ; Electronic circuits ; Communication