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Title: The soiling of materials in urban areas
Author: Mansfield, Trudie A.
ISNI:       0000 0001 3618 3978
Awarding Body: Middlesex Polytechnic
Current Institution: Middlesex University
Date of Award: 1989
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This thesis considers the sources of airborne particulate matter and dark smoke in the UK and its implication in the soiling of materials. The role of particulate elemental carbon receives special consideration. Results of emission inventories reveal that diesel emissions are responsible for 60% of dark smoke in urban areas and 25% on a national level. Particulate emissions have been identified as being largely responsible for the soiling of building fabric in urban areas. It is now being increasingly accepted that vehicle exhaust emissions make major contributions to this fabric soiling as well as to the deterioration of atmospheric quality within the urban environment. Field work has been carried out at nine locations within metropolitan London, where a variety of materials was displayed. The materials' reflectance was measured at regular intervals together with pollution and meteorological conditions for alperiod of eighteen months. Soiling rates in the range of -0.02-4.5 yr were recorded. Particulate samples were collected by a variety of methods and soiling rates were measured in a traffic tunnel to assess the rate of sliling in the absence of rainfall. Soiling rates of -0.5-0.8 yr were recorded. Daily soiling rates for sheltered and exposed materials were measured in a third field study. A cost-benefit analysis of the building soiling problem was also undertaken. The costings were achieved by a survey of UK stone cleaning companies to identify their turnover, market characteristics, mode and cleaning frequencies. The benefits were obtained by interviewing typical clients of the stone cleaning companies to ascertain the amount they spent per annum on stone cleaning and the benefits accrued as a result of cleaning
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Environmental contamination