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Title: Colourings of random graphs
Author: Heckel, Annika
Awarding Body: University of Oxford
Current Institution: University of Oxford
Date of Award: 2016
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We study graph parameters arising from different types of colourings of random graphs, defined broadly as an assignment of colours to either the vertices or the edges of a graph. The chromatic number X(G) of a graph is the minimum number of colours required for a vertex colouring where no two adjacent vertices are coloured the same. Determining the chromatic number is one of the classic challenges in random graph theory. In Chapter 3, we give new upper and lower bounds for the chromatic number of the dense random graph G(n,p)) where p ∈ (0,1) is constant. These bounds are the first to match up to an additive term of order o(1) in the denominator, and in particular, they determine the average colour class size in an optimal colouring up to an additive term of order o(1). In Chapter 4, we study a related graph parameter called the equitable chromatic number. This is defined as the minimum number of colours needed for a vertex colouring where no two adjacent vertices are coloured the same and, additionally, all colour classes are as equal in size as possible. We prove one point concentration of the equitable chromatic number of the dense random graph G(n,m) with m = pn(n-1)/2, p < 1-1/e2 constant, on a subsequence of the integers. We also show that whp, the dense random graph G(n,p) allows an almost equitable colouring with a near optimal number of colours. We call an edge colouring of a graph G a rainbow colouring if every pair of vertices is joined by a rainbow path, which is a path where no colour is repeated. The least number of colours where this is possible is called the rainbow connection number rc(G). Since its introduction in 2008 as a new way to quantify how well connected a given graph is, the rainbow connection number has attracted the attention of a great number of researchers. For any graph G, rc(G)≥diam(G), where diam(G) denotes the diameter. In Chapter 5, we will see that in the random graph G(n,p), rainbow connection number 2 is essentially equivalent to diameter 2. More specifically, we consider G ~ G(n,p) close to the diameter 2 threshold and show that whp rc(G) = diam(G) ∈ {2,3}. Furthermore, we show that in the random graph process, whp the hitting times of diameter 2 and of rainbow connection number 2 coincide. In Chapter 6, we investigate sharp thresholds for the property rc(G)≤=r where r is a fixed integer. The results of Chapter 6 imply that for r=2, the properties rc(G)≤=2 and diam(G)≤=2 share the same sharp threshold. For r≥3, the situation seems quite different. We propose an alternative threshold and prove that this is an upper bound for the sharp threshold for rc(G)≤=r where r≥3.
Supervisor: Riordan, Oliver Sponsor: Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council ; University of Oxford
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Mathematics ; Combinatorics ; Graph colouring ; Equitable chromatic number ; Probabilistic combinatorics ; Chromatic number ; Random graphs ; Random graph process ; Rainbow connectivity