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Title: A high spatial resolution magnetovision camera using high-sensitivity Quantum Well Hall Effect sensors
Author: Liang, Chen-Wei
Awarding Body: University of Manchester
Current Institution: University of Manchester
Date of Award: 2017
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A systematic and detailed design, building and testing of a high-sensitivity real-time magnetovision imaging system for non-destructive testing (NDT) was the purpose of the research presented here. The magnetic imaging systems developed were all based on an ultra-high sensitivity Quantum Well Hall Effect (QWHE) sensors, denoted as the P2A, which is based on GaAs-InGaAs-AlGaAs 2DEG heterostructures. The research progressed from 0D (single sensor) to 1D (linear array) to 2D (two dimensional arrays) testing modalities. Firstly, the measurement of thermal and shot noises, drift, detection limit, and dynamic offset cancellation of the QWHE sensor were studied in detail to set the framework and limitations of the fundamental QWHE sensors before their eventual use in the imaging systems developed subsequently. The results indicate that the measured data agrees well with calculations for thermal and shot noise when the input bias current is < 3 mA. The measured drift voltages of various QWHE sensors (P2A and P3A) are less than 200 µV when the sensor bias voltage is less than or equal to 2 V. A 4-direction dynamic offset cancellation technique was developed and the results show that the offset equivalent magnetic field of the QWHE sensors can be reduced from ~ 1mT to readings equal to the Earth magnetic field (~ 50 µT). Secondly, a flexible 16 × 1 array and a 32 × 2 staggered array magnetic-field scanners were designed, built, and tested. The QWHE magnetometer had a field strength resolution of 100 nT, and a measurement dynamic range of 138 dB. The flexible 16 × 1 magnetic field scanner can be used to test uneven and/or curved surfaces. This gives the flexible magnetic field scanner better inspection capabilities in both welding hump and circular pipe samples. By the staggered arrangement of two sensor arrays, a 15.4 point per inch horizontal spatial resolution can be achieved for the staggered 32 × 2 magnetic field scanner. Both direct and alternating magnetic flux leakage (DC and AC MFL) tests with the QWHE magnetometer were accomplished to obtain graphical 2-dimensional magnetic field distributions. Both the shape and the location of defects can be identified. The results show that the sensor has high sensitivity and linearity in a wide frequency range which makes it an optimum choice for AC-MFL testing and both ferromagnetic and non-ferromagnetic materials can be investigated. Thirdly, real-time 8 × 8 and 16  16 QWHE array magnetic-field cameras were designed, built, and tested. These prototypes can measure static magnetic field strengths in a 2-dimensional plane. Different shapes of magnets and magnetic field polarities can all be identified by the 8 × 8 magnetic field camera. The camera has a resolution of 3.05 mT, and a dynamic range of 66 dB (the minimum and maximum fields measurable are 3.05 mT and 6.25 mT) and a real time magnetic field measurement rate of 13 frames per second (FPS). By contrast the1616 array magnetic field camera has an improved sampling rate of 600 frame per second and with the use of an interpolation technique, a spatial resolution of 40.6 point per inch can be achieved. The minimum and maximum detectable magnetic field for this magnetic field camera are 1.8 µT and 29.5 mT respectively leading to a record dynamic range of 84 dB for high quality imaging. Finally, a novel, hand held, magnetovision system based on the real-time 16 × 16 QWHE array magnetic-field camera was developed for improved DC and AC electromagnetic NDT testing. The system uses a new super heterodyne technique for data acquisition using the QWHE sensor as a multiplier. This is the first report of such a technique in Hall effect magnetometry. The experimental results of five case studies demonstrate that the defects location and shape can be successfully measured with MFL in DC and AC magnetic field configurations including depth profiling. The major advantages of this real-time magnetic-field camera are: (1) its ease to use as a MFL testing equipment in both DC and AC NDT testing, (2) its ability to provide 2D graphical images similar to Magnetic Particle Inspection (MPI) but without its inherent health and safety drawbacks, (3) its capability to test both ferromagnetic and non-ferromagnetic materials for deep defects below the surface using low frequency alternating magnetic fields, and (4) its ability to identify materials (metals) by alternating external magnetic field illuminations, which has considerable potential in several applications such as security checking and labelling, magnetic markers for analysis, bio-imaging detection, and medical treatments amongst others.
Supervisor: Missous, Mohamed Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Non-destructive testing ; Magnetic Flux Leakage ; Hall Effect sensor ; Magnetovision ; Quantum Well ; 2DEG