Use this URL to cite or link to this record in EThOS: http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.719772
Title: Concentrating food materials using electrokinetically enhanced filtration (EKEF) : impact on filtration efficiency, quality compounds and power consumption
Author: Iessa, Hassan
Awarding Body: Newcastle University
Current Institution: University of Newcastle upon Tyne
Date of Award: 2016
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Abstract:
Countries around the world are suffering from many problems caused by the misuse of their resources either by using non-renewable ones or destroying the valuable features of the resources that are available. Some of the most important challenges facing humanity are related to food and energy security. Food security includes many aspects besides providing people with an adequate amount of safe and healthy food; it also includes improving food processing to produce acceptable, high quality food products with reduced losses of nutrients, carbon footprint and using fewer resources in the production/packaging processes. Dried and concentrated foods have become an important category in the food products marketplace. Many of the usual traditional methods require very high energy inputs. These methods may also have significant negative impacts on the foodstuffs, especially their chemical properties, such as loss of essential nutrients, as well as their appearance, aromas and flavour. This project aimed to combine the electrokinetic phenomenon of electro-osmosis with the traditional functions of filtration to form a process of electrokinetically enhanced filtration (EKEF). This process is based on using electrokinetic effects to enhance conventional filtration technologies to concentrate foodstuffs at low temperature which saves energy, time, and product constituents associated with product quality, especially the temperature-sensitive components such as Vitamin C, fruit/vegetable colours and key aromas. This study is concerned with factors affecting the efficiency of the EKEF process after its application to concentrate orange juice (14% dry matter content, pH=3.6) and malt extract (20% dry matter content, pH=4.55), and monitoring the changes that occur in indicators of food quality, such as the change in pH value, vitamin C content, colour, dry matter as well as the energy inputs to facilitate the EKEF. The process of electrokinetics was combined with micro-filtration (MF) to speed up the process and save time and energy. This is carried out in an EKEF-rig which was designed to meet the project needs with an ability to change all the dependent parameters to find the optimum conditions to run this application. Applying EKEF improved the filtration process and achieved net dewatering efficiencies up to 7.43% and 4.86% for orange juice and 10.68% and 6.26% for malt extract after 5.5hrs of processing under 30V and 15V respectively; and increased dry matter content from 14% to ii 33.09% and 29.52% for orange juice and from 20% to 34.2% and 32.14% for malt extract after 5.5hrs under 30V and 15V respectively. The maximum dry matter content was 28.75% and 29.63% under the control condition after the same time for orange juice and malt extract respectively. Results showed that the performance of the EKEF process was dependent upon several parameters such as the sample’s conductivity, applied voltage used, applied pressure, initial sample’s thickness (the distance between electrodes) and filters pore size; all of these factors had a positive impact on improving the process efficiency except of the initial sample’s thickness which had a negative impact. Regarding the impact on the heat-sensitive food compounds, here represented by vitamin C; applying EKEF for 5.5hours reduced vitamin C retention in the concentrated juice to 41% under 15V and 7% under 30V. The retention of the total filtrate was also influenced by the EKEF process, where it fell to 48% under 15V and 35% under 30V. Vitamin C retention was better under the EKEF process compared with its value under conventional thermal methods, where it needed about 10-15min at 50-75ºC and (3min) at 90ºC to drop to 50% or less (Vikram et al., 2005). EKEF also had a negative impact on the juice colour and pH value. The direction of water flow and the profile of fluid flow between the two electrodes were thoroughly investigated to identify the main filtration outlet and its position; the power consumption of the application was also calculated and compared with power consumption of conventional thermal methods. The EKEF process resulted in a large power consumption addition compared with applying the pressure only; however, the required additional energy needed to achieve the same increase in dewatering efficiency by increasing the pressure only without EK was relatively small. On the other hand, EKEF showed a good efficiency in energy saving compared with the power consumption required in more conventional thermal methods used to evaporate an equal amount of water. This saving was up to 18.35 times and 47.34 times in OJ and ME dewatering respectively.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID: uk.bl.ethos.719772  DOI: Not available
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