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Title: Topics in computing with quantum oracles and higher-dimensional many-body systems
Author: Sardharwalla, Imdad Sajjad Badruddin
Awarding Body: University of Cambridge
Current Institution: University of Cambridge
Date of Award: 2017
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Since they were first envisioned, quantum computers have oft been portrayed as devices of limitless power, able to perform calculations in a mere instant that would take current computers years to determine. This is, of course, not the case. A huge amount of effort has been invested in trying to understand the limits of quantum computers---under which circumstances they outperform classical computers, how large a speed-up can be gained, and what draws the distinction between quantum and classical computing. In this Ph.D. thesis, I investigate a few intriguing properties of quantum computers involving quantum oracles and classically-simulatable quantum circuits. In Part I I study the notion of black-box unitary operations, and procedures for effecting the inverse operation. Part II looks at how quantum oracles can be used to test properties of probability distributions, and Part III considers classes of quantum circuits that can be simulated efficiently on a classical computer. In more detail, Part I studies procedures for inverting black-box unitary operations. Known techniques are generally limited in some way, often requiring ancilla systems, working only for restricted sets of operators, or simply being too inefficient. We develop a novel procedure without these limitations, and show how it can be applied to lift a requirement of the Solovay-Kitaev theorem, a landmark theorem of quantum compiling. Part II looks at property testing for probability distributions, and in particular considers a special type of access known as the \textit{conditional oracle}. The classical conditional oracle was developed by Canonne et al. in 2015 and subsequently greatly explored. We develop a quantum version of this oracle, and show that it has advantages over the classical process. We use this oracle to develop an algorithm that decides whether or not a mixed state is fully mixed. In Part III we study classically-simulatable quantum circuits in more depth. Two well-known classes are Clifford circuits and matchgate circuits, which we briefly review. Using these as inspiration, we use the Jordan-Wigner transform to develop new classes of non-trivial quantum circuits that are also classically simulatable.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: EPSRC
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
Keywords: Quantum Gate Inversion ; Quantum Distribution Testing ; Classical Simulation of Quantum Circuits