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Title: Workplace perceived gender discrimination in the Bahraini banking sector : a case analysis of Islamic and conventional banks
Author: Alalawi, Esam Ismaeel
Awarding Body: Brunel University London
Current Institution: Brunel University
Date of Award: 2017
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Abstract:
This qualitative study explores the interrelationship between perceived gender discrimination and its antecedents and consequences while examining the concept of the glass ceiling that presents some barriers to the career advancement of Bahraini female workers in the banking sector. The study examines female bankers’ perception of the existence of both gender discrimination and the glass ceiling concept in this sector. It first examines the factors that cause such phenomena at three different levels namely societal, institutional and individual. The study then verifies the effects of some identified antecedents i.e. whether they foster or lower the perceived gender discrimination and how such effects happen. Furthermore, the study examines the same factors to ascertain if they are barriers that hinder women’s career advancement or enablers that support their advancement as there is a lack of empirical studies on the effect of the factors of the three mentioned levels to women’s career advancement especially in non-western context (Tlaiss, 2010; Hejase et al., 2013; Yokkongdi & Benson, 2005). The study also examines the consequences of perceived gender discrimination that occurs at the individual level. Some previous studies related to this research topic adopted the quantitative approach, hence; this is a qualitative based research that examines the perception of the respondents whose experiences and opinions expound the context. This led to understanding subjective areas such as respondents’ emotions and experiences that address the nature of perceived gender discrimination and the concept of glass ceiling in the Bahraini banking sector, focusing on “How” and “Why” type of questions instead of stressing on the quantities. The existing literature of gender discrimination especially about the area of underrepresentation of female workers in higher positions especially in financial services sector including banking is minimal. (Bruckmuller & Branscombe, 2010; Elumti et al., 2009; Durbin & Conley, 2010). This approach unveils the research questions by conducting in-depth semi-structured interviews with 26 Bahraini females as most of the previous studies examined both male and female perceptions while this research focusing at female only to make it more gender specific. The respondents hold managerial and non-managerial positions in both Islamic and conventional banks in the kingdom of Bahrain. The aim of the interview was to extract their perceptions on the factors and the consequences of gender discrimination as well as the barriers and challenges that hinder their advancement to higher managerial levels. The study captures the factors and the consequences of gender discrimination as well as the most common barriers that impede the Bahraini females’ career advancement within an Islamic and Arabic cultural context. The themes that emerged from the analysis are used to discuss the research issues in the light of previous research findings from different empirical studies. This study identifies different ways of finding factors of perceived gender discrimination and their effects as well as the challenges that may hinder the women’s career advancement in this sector. This study discovers that perceived gender discrimination exists in the Bahraini banking sector especially in areas such as hiring preference and receiving of benefits and compensations. This study also unearths the existence of glass ceiling, which is related to the gender inequality in the advancement opportunities to higher positions especially in the areas such as obtaining a promotion and holding managerial positions in the banks. The study finds out various factors that cause the perceived gender discrimination and the glass ceiling in the Bahraini banking sector which are classified at three levels as explained above.
Supervisor: Mordi, C. ; Al-Shirawi, A. M. ; Eldabi, T. Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID: uk.bl.ethos.715917  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Antecedents and consequences of perceived gender discrimination ; Exploring the glass ceiling theory in the Bahraini banking context ; Barriers and challenges that hinder women's career advancement ; Factors causing perceived gender discrimination at individual ; institutional and societal levels ; Enables that support women's career advancement
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