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Title: The physical chemistry of pMDI formulations derived from hydrofluoroalkane propellants : a study of the physical behaviour of poorly soluble active pharmaceutical ingredients : bespoke analytical method development leading to novel formulation approaches for product development
Author: Telford, Richard
Awarding Body: University of Bradford
Current Institution: University of Bradford
Date of Award: 2013
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Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) are frequently prepared for delivery to the lung for local topical treatment of diseases such as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and asthma, or for systemic delivery. One of the most commonly used devices for this purpose is the pressurised metered dose inhaler (pMDI) whereby drugs are formulated in a volatile propellant held under pressure. The compound is aerosolised to a respirably sized dose on actuation, subsequently breathed in by the user. The use of hydrofluoroalkanes (HFAs) in pMDIs since the Montreal Protocol initiated a move away from chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) based devices has resulted in better performing products, with increased lung deposition and a concomitant reduction in oropharyngeal deposition. The physical properties of HFA propellants are however poorly understood and their capacity for solubilising inhaled pharmaceutical products (IPPs) and excipients used historically in CFCs differ significantly. There is therefore a drive to establish methodologies to study these systems in-situ and post actuation to adequately direct formulation strategies for the production of stable and efficacious suspension and solution based products. Characterisation methods have been applied to pMDI dosage systems to gain insight into solubility in HFAs and to determine forms of solid deposits after actuation. A novel quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance method to investigate the physical chemistry of IPPs in these preparations has formed the centrepiece to these studies, accessing solubility data in-situ and at pressure for the first time in HFA propellants. Variable temperature NMR has provided thermodynamic data through van’t Hoff approaches. The methods have been developed and validated using budesonide to provide limits of determination as low as 1 μg/mL and extended to 11 IPPs chosen to represent currently prescribed inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), β2-adrenoagonists and antimuscarinic bronchodilators, and have highlighted solubility variations between the classes of compounds with lipophilic ICSs showing the highest, and hydrophilic β2- agonist/antimuscarinics showing the lowest solubilities from the compounds under study. To determine solid forms on deposition, a series of methods are also described using modified impaction methods in combination with analytical approaches including spectroscopy (μ-Raman), X-ray diffraction, SEM, chromatography and thermal analysis. Their application has ascertained (i) physical form/morphology data on commercial pMDI formulations of the ICS beclomethasone dipropionate (QVAR®/Sanasthmax®, Chiesi) and (ii) distribution assessment in-vitro of ICS/β2-agonist compounds from combination pMDIs confirming co-deposition (Seretide®/Symbicort®, GlaxoSmithKline/AstraZeneca). In combination, these methods provide a platform for development of new formulations based on HFA propellants. The methods have been applied to a number of ‘real’ systems incorporating derivatised cyclodextrins and the co-solvent ethanol, and provide a basis for a comprehensive study of solubilisation of the ICS budesonide in HFA134a using two approaches: mixed solvents and complexation. These new systems provide a novel approach to deliver to the lung, with reduced aerodynamic particle size distribution (APSD) potentially accessing areas suitable for delivery to peripheral areas of the lung (ICS) or to promote systemic delivery.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Pressurised metered dose inhaler (pMDI) ; Hydrofluoroalkanes (HFAs) ; Analytical method development ; Inhalation ; Formulation ; Complexation