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Title: Mathematical modelling of acetaminophen induced hepatotoxicity
Author: Reddyhoff, Dennis
ISNI:       0000 0004 5993 7156
Awarding Body: Loughborough University
Current Institution: Loughborough University
Date of Award: 2016
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Acetaminophen, known as paracetamol in the UK and Tylenol in the United States, is a widespread and commonly used painkiller all over the world. Taken in large enough doses, however, it can cause fatal liver damage. In the U.S., 56000 people are admitted to hospital each year due to acetaminophen overdose and its related effects, at great cost to healthcare services. In this thesis we present a number of different models of acetaminophen metabolism and toxicity. Previously, models of acetaminophen toxicity have been complex and due to this complexity, do not lend themselves well to more advanced mathematical analysis such as the perturbation analysis presented later in this thesis. We begin with a simple model of acetaminophen metabolism, studying a single liver cell and performing numerical and sensitivity analysis to further understand the most important mechanisms and pathways of the model. Through this we identify key parameters that affect the total toxicity in our model. We then proceed to perform singular perturbation analysis, studying the behaviour of the model over different timescales, finding a number of key timescales for the depletion and subsequent recovery of various cofactors as well as critical dose above which we see toxicity occurring. Later in the thesis, this model is used to model metabolism in a spheroid cell culture, examining the difference spatial effects have on metabolism across a 3D cell culture. We then present a more complex model, examining the difference the addition of an adaptive response to acetaminophen overdose from the Nrf2 signalling pathway, has on our results. We aim to reproduce an unexplained result in the experimental data of our colleagues, and so analyse the steady states of our model when subjected to an infused dose, rather than a bolus one. We identify another critical dose which leads to GSH depletion in the infused dose case and find that Nrf2 adaptation decreases toxicity and model sensitivity. This model is then used as part of a whole-body PBPK model, exploring the effects that the distribution of the drug across the bloodstream and different organs has. We explore the affects of that a delay in up-regulation from the Nrf2 pathway has on the model, and find that with rescaled parameters we can qualitatively reproduce the results of our collaborators. Finally, we present the results of in vitro work that we have undertaken, the aim of which was to find new parameters for the model in human hepatocytes, rather than from rodent models, and find a new value for a parameter in our model from human cell lines.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: NC3R's
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Mathematical modelling ; Modelling ; Toxicity ; Acetaminophen ; Paracetamol ; Apap ; Timescale ; Nrf2 ; Spheroid ; Ivive ; Animal