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Title: Oxidative stress and its haemodynamic consequences in chronic kidney disease
Author: Gillis, Keith Andrew
ISNI:       0000 0004 5994 6650
Awarding Body: University of Glasgow
Current Institution: University of Glasgow
Date of Award: 2016
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Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk in comparison with the general population. This can be observed even in the early stages of CKD, and rises in proportion to the degree of renal impairment. Not only is cardiovascular disease (CVD) more prevalent in CKD, but its nature differs too, with an excess of morbidity and mortality associated with congestive cardiac failure, arrhythmia and sudden death, as well as the accelerated atherosclerosis which is also observed. Conventional cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidaemia, obesity, glycaemia and smoking, are highly prevalent amongst patients with CKD, although in many of these examples the interaction between risk factor and disease differs from that which exists in normal renal function. Nevertheless, the extent of CVD cannot be fully explained by these conventional risk factors, and non-conventional factors specific to CKD are now recognised to contribute to the burden of CVD. Oxidative stress is a state characterised by excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other radical species, a reduction in the capacity of antioxidant systems, and disturbance in normal redox homeostasis with depletion of protective vascular signalling molecules such as nitric oxide (NO). This results in oxidative damage to macromolecules such as lipids, proteins and DNA which can alter their functionality. Moreover, many enzymes are sensitive to redox regulation such that oxidative modification to cysteine thiol groups results in activation of signalling cascades which result in adverse cardiovascular effects such as vascular and endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress are present in association with many conventional cardiovascular risk factors, and can be observed even prior to the development of overt, clinical, vascular pathology, suggesting that these phenomena represent the earliest stages of CVD. In the presence of CKD, there is increased ROS production due to upregulated NADPH oxidase (NOX), increase in a circulating asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), uncoupling of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) as well as other mechanisms. There is also depletion in exogenous antioxidants such as ascorbic acid and tocopherol, and a reduction in activity of endogenous antioxidant systems regulated by the master gene regulator Nrf-2. In previous studies, circulating markers of oxidative stress have been shown to be increased in CKD, together with a reduction in endothelial function in a stepwise fashion relating to the severity of renal impairment. Not only is CVD linked to oxidative stress, but the progression of CKD itself is also in part dependent on redox sensitive mechanisms. For example, administration of the ROS scavenger tempol attenuates renal injury and reduces renal fibrosis seen on biopsy in a mouse model of CKD, whilst conversely, supplementation with the NOS inhibitor L-NAME causes proteinuria and renal impairment. Previous human studies examining the effect of antioxidant administration on vascular and renal function have been conflicting however. The work contained in this thesis therefore examines the effect of antioxidant administration on vascular and endothelial function in CKD. Firstly, 30 patients with CKD stages 3 – 5, and 20 matched hypertensive controls were recruited. Participants with CKD had lower ascorbic acid, higher TAP and ADMA, together with higher augmentation index and pulse wave velocity. There was no difference in baseline flow mediated dilatation (FMD) between groups. Intravenous ascorbic acid increased TAP and O2-, and reduced central BP and augmentation index in both groups, and lowered ADMA in the CKD group only. No effect on FMD was observed. The effects of ascorbic acid on kidney function was then investigated, however this was hindered by the inherent drawbacks of existing methods of non-invasively measuring kidney function. Arterial spin labelling MRI is an emerging imaging technique which allows measurement of renal perfusion without administration of an exogenous contrast agent. The technique relies upon application of an inversion pulse to blood within the vasculature proximal to the kidneys, which magnetically labels protons allowing measurement upon transit to the kidney. At the outset of this project local experience using ASL MRI was limited and there ensued a prolonged pre-clinical phase of testing with the aim of optimising imaging strategy. A study was then designed to investigate the repeatability of ASL MRI in a group of 12 healthy volunteers with normal renal function. The measured T1 longitudinal relaxation times and ASL MRI perfusion values were in keeping with those found in the literature; T1 time was 1376 ms in the cortex and 1491 ms in the whole kidney ROI, whilst perfusion was 321 mL/min/100g in the cortex, and 228 mL/min/100g in the whole kidney ROI. There was good reproducibility demonstrated on Bland Altman analysis, with a CVws was 9.2% for cortical perfusion and 7.1% for whole kidney perfusion. Subsequently, in a study of 17 patients with CKD and 24 healthy volunteers, the effects of ascorbic acid on renal perfusion was investigated. Although no change in renal perfusion was found following ascorbic acid, it was found that ASL MRI demonstrated significant differences between those with normal renal function and participants with CKD stages 3 – 5, with increased cortical and whole kidney T1, and reduced cortical and whole kidney perfusion. Interestingly, absolute perfusion showed a weak but significant correlation with progression of kidney disease over the preceding year. Ascorbic acid was therefore shown to have a significant effect on vascular biology both in CKD and in those with normal renal function, and to reduce ADMA only in patients with CKD. ASL MRI has shown promise as a non-invasive investigation of renal function and as a biomarker to identify individuals at high risk of progressive renal impairment.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: RC Internal medicine