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Title: Developing and evaluating an arts therapies programme for children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in primary schools in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA)
Author: Alrazain, Badr
ISNI:       0000 0004 5920 899X
Awarding Body: Queen Margaret University, Edinburgh
Current Institution: Queen Margaret University
Date of Award: 2016
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Purpose – The overall aim of the research is to develop a culturally sensitive arts therapies programme for children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in primary schools in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). This research adapted the UK arts therapies practice to fit these cultural requirements. Design/methodology – The study is a mixed methods design, carried out in two stages. The first stage was to identify the current provision and cultural issues in conducting arts therapies intervention for children with ADHD in KSA. Data was collected using interviews from twelve arts therapists from the UK and nine informants from KSA. The information obtained assisted in the development of culturally sensitive guidelines for the delivery of an arts therapies programme, which was conducted in stage two of the study. The second stage involved a pilot randomised control trial design that took place in an identified school in KSA. This stage involved 12 children aged 6-12, randomly allocated to either the intervention or the control group, with six participants in each group. The programme was carried out three times a week over a period of eight weeks. Data was collected using pre and post-tests (SDQ and ADHD scales) and from interviews of the parents and teachers of the children from both the experimental and control groups. Findings – The findings demonstrate that art therapists in KSA focus on behaviour modification while arts therapists in the UK focus on improving emotional wellbeing. Art therapists in KSA used more structured approaches which are less effective for children with ADHD. There may be cultural problems in using arts therapies in KSA, particularly music and dance. Safety, routine activities and ground rules were adopted from the current practices in the UK and adapted to be appropriate for the cultural context in KSA. A culturally sensitive arts therapies programme may be an appropriate and valuable intervention for children with ADHD. Qualitative and quantitative findings indicate that the intervention of this study achieved specific benefits such as; decreasing hyperactivity/ impulsiveness and inattention. Moreover, this intervention improves relationship/social skills and emotional wellbeing. Practical implications – This programme is found to be beneficial and it may have a significant impact on the treatment of ADHD in KSA. Understanding cultural issues by the therapist increases the value of arts therapies interventions. Value – This study has many benefits as a contribution to knowledge and for the development of services in KSA for this client population. Since children with ADHD currently have minimal access to therapy of any sort, and very limited access to arts therapies, this research has a key role in developing culturally sensitive arts therapies programme for children with ADHD.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Occupational Therapy and Art Therapy