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Title: Analysis of 3D echocardiography
Author: Chykeyuk, Kiryl
ISNI:       0000 0004 5920 3136
Awarding Body: University of Oxford
Current Institution: University of Oxford
Date of Award: 2014
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Heart disease is the major cause of death in the developed world. Due to its fast, portable, low-cost and harmless way of imaging the heart, echocardiography has become the most frequent tool for diagnosis of cardiac function in clinical routine. However, visual assessment of heart function from echocardiography is challenging, highly operatordependant and is subject to intra- and inter observer errors. Therefore, development of automated methods for echocardiography analysis is important towards accurate assessment of cardiac function. In this thesis we develop new ways to model echocardiography data using Bayesian machine learning methods and concern three problems: (i) wall motion analysis in 2D stress echocardiography, (ii) segmentation of the myocardium in 3D echocardiography, and (iii) standard views extraction from 3D echocardiography. Firstly, we propose and compare four discriminative methods for feature extraction and wall motion classification of 2D stress echocardiography (images of the heart taken at rest and after exercise or pharmalogical stress). The four methods are based on (i) Support Vector Machines, (ii) Relevance Vector Machines, (iii) Lasso algorithm and Regularised Least Squares, (iv) Elastic Net regularisation and Regularised Least Squares. Although all the methods are shown to have superior performance to the state-of-the-art, one conclusion is that good segmentation of the myocardium in echocardiography is key for accurate assessment of cardiac wall motion. We investigate the application of one of the most promising current machine learning techniques, called Decision Random Forests, to segment the myocardium from 3D echocardiograms. We demonstrate that more reliable and ultrasound specific descriptors are needed in order to achieve the best results. Specifically, we introduce two sets of new features to improve the segmentation results: (i) LoCo and GloCo features with a local and a global shape constraint on coupled endoand epicardial boundaries, and (ii) FA features, which use the Feature Asymmetry measure to highlight step-like edges in echocardiographic images. We also reinforce the traditional features such as Haar and Rectangular features by aligning 3D echocardiograms. For that we develop a new registration technique, which is based on aligning centre lines of the left ventricles. We show that with alignment performance is boosted by approximately 15%. Finally, a novel approach to detect planes in 3D images using regression voting is proposed. To the best of our knowledge we are the first to use a one-step regression approach for the task of plane detection in 3D images. We investigate the application to standard views extraction from 3D echocardiography to facilitate efficient clinical inspection of cardiac abnormalities and diseases. We further develop a new method, called the Class- Specific Regression Forest, where class label information is incorporating into the training phase to reinforce the learning from semantically relevant to the problem classes. During testing the votes from irrelevant classes are excluded from voting to maximise the confidence of output predictors. We demonstrate that the Class-Specific Regression Random Forest outperforms the classic Regression Random Forest and produces results comparable to the manual annotations.
Supervisor: Noble, J. Alison Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Computer science (mathematics) ; Probability theory and stochastic processes ; Computationally-intensive statistics ; Pattern recognition (statistics) ; Probability ; Biomedical engineering ; Information engineering ; Image understanding ; Mathematical modeling (engineering) ; machine learning ; image analysis ; media image analysis ; 3D echocardiography ; 3D image analysis ; medical imaging