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Title: A refined numerical modelling technique for Shot Peening
Author: Murugaratnam, Kovthaman
ISNI:       0000 0004 5920 2942
Awarding Body: University of Oxford
Current Institution: University of Oxford
Date of Award: 2014
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Compressive residual stresses (CRS) are beneficial for enhancing the fatigue life of metal components. Shot Peening (SP) is an industrial cold working process that is applied to induce a field of CRS and modify the mechanical properties of the metal component. The SP process involves impacting a surface with tiny shots with forces sufficient to create plastic deformation. The process is governed by a number of important parameters such as the shot size, angle of attack, initial velocity, mass flow rate and the distance from the shot nozzle to the surface being peened. The relationship between the optimal peening outcome, particularly the residual stress distribution of the treated surface, and the peening parameters is still unknown and needs to be investigated further. Manufacturers are interested in producing a uniform peening process for complex geometries which optimises the SP parameters. Modelling the process is complex as it involves the interaction of a metallic surface with a large number of shots of very small diameter. Conventionally, such problems are solved using finite element software to predict stresses and strains of a single shot impact then applying superposition. At the moment there are no Finite Element Method (FEM) modelling solutions involving more than tens of shots. The number of shots and elements required for such a modelling process made the approach unfeasible prior to the work described herein. The objective of this work is to develop an appropriate numerical modelling approach that can better simulate the real SP process. The model will be provided by combining Discrete Element Method (DEM) with FEM. The DEM is employed to get a distribution of impact velocities over space and time which are then implemented into a FEM analysis. A discrete element model with randomly distributed steel shots bombarding a steel component at various velocities has been developed as benchmark example. With this model the SP shot - shot interaction, the shot - target interaction, the surface coverage, angle of impingement, shot size, impact velocity and the overall shot flow can be parametrically studied in details and with little computational effort. The novel approach also proposes a new method to dynamically change the coefficient of restitution for repeated impacts during the simulation and predicts the CRS more effectively. The effects of SP on different materials of relevance to gas turbine engine components will be investigated in order to improve the understanding of the interaction between the shots and the targeted material. Initially, an uncoupled analysis was peforned, in order to assess the capabilities of the two modelling systems, DEM and FEM, to delivery an improved solutuion when combining two commercially available codes. This parametric analysis is performed using the state-of-the-art Discrete Element (DE) application EDEM. In the subsequent part of this work, a dynamic Finite Element (FE) application Abaqus will be used to investigate single shot impacts and to obtain the residual stress distribution. This gives us a prescribed residual stress distribution and peening coverage. A Combined DEM/FEM tool (DEST) is proposed that eliminates any manual pre-processing required for linking/coupling, eliminating the use of two different applications and provide an integrated solution for the simulation of the Shot Peening process. In the subsequent chapter, the implementation of essential tools for the enchanced modelling of Shot Peening process functionalities, such as the nozzle, bounding box, coverage and intensity is described. A number of computational improvements are also implemented to reduce the computation time. The existing binary search is enhanced to self-balancing search tree and further improved to allow insertion and deletion of elements. A bounding box feature which removes shots that move out of the domain during the course of the simulation is also implemented. Experiments featuring single shot impacts are performed to gain better understanding the deformation process in the target material subjected to impact conditions to those occurring in the production peening. The single shot impacts are experimentally examined using SEM and EBSD. During final chapter, case studies are performed to compare the results of the simulations with large-scale experimental work. The coverage of peening of single and multiple nozzles with different angle of impingements are assessed. Finally, possible directions for further research concerning the accurate quantification of material responses to SP are identified in the report.
Supervisor: Petrinic, Nik ; Utili, Stefano Sponsor: Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Mechanical engineering ; Processing of advanced materials ; Surfaces ; Materials processing ; Surface mechanical properties ; Shot Peening ; residual stresses ; discrete element method ; finite element method ; numerical simulation