Use this URL to cite or link to this record in EThOS: http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.691235
Title: Developing an index of dietary estimation of fermentable carbohydrate to allow dietary analysis for epidemiological studies
Author: Alharbi, Sulaiman
ISNI:       0000 0004 5917 2763
Awarding Body: University of Glasgow
Current Institution: University of Glasgow
Date of Award: 2016
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Abstract:
It has been proposed that long-term consumption of diets rich in non-digestible carbohydrates (NDCs), such as cereals, fruit and vegetables might protect against several chronic diseases, however, it has been difficult to fully establish their impact on health in epidemiology studies. The wide range properties of the different NDCs may dilution their impact when they are combined in one category for statistical comparisons in correlations or multivariate analysis. Several mechanisms have been suggested to explain the protective effects of NDCs, including increased stool bulk, dilution of carcinogens in the colonic lumen, reduced transit time, lowering pH, and bacterial fermentation to short chain fatty acids (SCFA) in the colon. However, it is very difficult to measure SCFA in humans in vivo with any accuracy, so epidemiological studies on the impact of SCFA are not feasible. Most studies use dietary fibre (DF) or Non-Starch Polysaccharides (NSP) intake to estimate the levels, but not all fibres or NSP are equally fermentable. It has been proposed that long-term consumption of diets rich in non-digestible carbohydrates (NDCs), such as cereals, fruit and vegetables might protect against several chronic diseases, however, it has been difficult to fully establish their impact on health in epidemiology studies. The wide range properties of the different NDCs may dilution their impact when they are combined in one category for statistical comparisons in correlations or multivariate analysis. Several mechanisms have been suggested to explain the protective effects of NDCs, including increased stool bulk, dilution of carcinogens in the colonic lumen, reduced transit time, lowering pH, and bacterial fermentation to short chain fatty acids (SCFA) in the colon. However, it is very difficult to measure SCFA in humans in vivo with any accuracy, so epidemiological studies on the impact of SCFA are not feasible. Most studies use dietary fibre (DF) or Non-Starch Polysaccharides (NSP) intake to estimate the levels, but not all fibres or NSP are equally fermentable. The first aim of this thesis was the development of the equations used to estimate the amount of FC that reaches the human colon and is fermented fully to SCFA by the colonic bacteria. Therefore, several studies were examined for evidence to determine the different percentages of each type of NDCs that should be included in the final model, based on how much NDCs entered the colon intact and also to what extent they were fermented to SCFA in vivo. Our model equations are FC-DF or NSP$ 1: 100 % Soluble + 10 % insoluble + 100 % NDOs¥ + 5 % TS** FC-DF or NSP 2: 100 % Soluble + 50 % insoluble + 100 % NDOs + 5 % TS FC-DF* or NSP 3: 100 % Soluble + 10 % insoluble + 100 % NDOs + 10 % TS FC-DF or NSP 4: 100 % Soluble + 50 % insoluble + 100 % NDOs + 10 % TS *DF: Dietary fibre; **TS: Total starch; $NSP: non-starch polysaccharide; ¥NDOs: non-digestible oligosaccharide The second study of this thesis aimed to examine all four predicted FC-DF and FC-NSP equations developed, to estimate FC from dietary records against urinary colonic NDCs fermentation biomarkers. The main finding of a cross-sectional comparison of habitual diet with urinary excretion of SCFA products, showed weak but significant correlation between the 24 h urinary excretion of SCFA and acetate with the estimated FC-DF 4 and FC-NSP 4 when considering all of the study participants (n = 122). Similar correlations were observed with the data for valid participants (n = 78). It was also observed that FC-DF and FC-NSP had positive correlations with 24 h urinary acetate and SCFA compared with DF and NSP alone. Hence, it could be hypothesised that using the developed index to estimate FC in the diet form dietary records, might predict SCFA production in the colon in vivo in humans. The next study in this thesis aimed to validate the FC equations developed using in vitro models of small intestinal digestion and human colon fermentation. The main findings in these in vitro studies were that there were several strong agreements between the amounts of SCFA produced after actual in vitro fermentation of single fibre and different mixtures of NDCs, and those predicted by the estimated FC from our developed equation FC-DF 4. These results which demonstrated a strong relationship between SCFA production in vitro from a range of fermentations of single fibres and mixtures of NDCs and that from the predicted FC equation, support the use of the FC equation for estimation of FC from dietary records. Therefore, we can conclude that the newly developed predicted equations have been deemed a valid and practical tool to assess SCFA productions for in vitro fermentation.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID: uk.bl.ethos.691235  DOI: Not available
Keywords: R Medicine (General)
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