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Title: Performance of IEEE 802.15.4 beaconless-enabled protocol for low data rate ad hoc wireless sensor networks
Author: Iqbal, Muhamad Syamsu
ISNI:       0000 0004 5914 8173
Awarding Body: Brunel University London
Current Institution: Brunel University
Date of Award: 2016
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This thesis focuses on the enhancement of the IEEE 802.15.4 beaconless-enabled MAC protocol as a solution to overcome the network bottleneck, less flexible nodes, and more energy waste at the centralised wireless sensor networks (WSN). These problems are triggered by mechanism of choosing a centralised WSN coordinator to start communication and manage the resources. Unlike IEEE 802.11 standard, the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC protocol does not include method to overcome hidden nodes problem. Moreover, understanding the behaviour and performance of a large-scale WSN is a very challenging task. A comparative study is conducted to investigate the performance of the proposed ad hoc WSN both over the low data rate IEEE 802.15.4 and the high data rate IEEE 802.11 standards. Simulation results show that, in small-scale networks, ad hoc WSN over 802.15.4 outperforms the WSN where it improves 4-key performance indicators such as throughput, PDR, packet loss, and energy consumption by up to 22.4%, 17.1%, 34.1%, and 43.2%, respectively. Nevertheless, WSN achieves less end-to-end delay; in this study, it introduces by up to 2.0 ms less delay than that of ad hoc WSN. Furthermore, the ad hoc wireless sensor networks work well both over IEEE 802.15.4 and IEEE 802.11 protocols in small-scale networks with low traffic loads. The performance of IEEE 802.15.4 declines for the higher payload size since this standard is dedicated to low rate wireless personal access networks. A deep performance investigation of the IEEE 802.15.4 beaconless-enabled wireless sensor network (BeWSN) in hidden nodes environment has been conducted and followed by an investigation of network overhead on ad hoc networks over IEEE 802.11 protocol. The result of investigation evinces that the performance of beaconless-enabled ad hoc wireless sensor networks deteriorates as indicated by the degradation of throughput and packet reception by up to 72.66 kbps and 35.2%, respectively. In relation to end-to-end delay, however, there is no significant performance deviation caused by hidden nodes appearance. On the other hand, preventing hidden node effect by implementing RTS/CTS mechanism introduces significant overhead on the network that applies low packet size. Therefore, this handshaking method is not suitable for low rate communications protocol such as IEEE 802.15.4 standard. An evaluation study of a 101-node large-scale beaconless-enabled wireless sensor networks over IEEE 802.15.4 protocol has been carried out after the nodes deployment model was arranged. From the experiment, when the number of connection densely increases, then the probability of packet delivery decreases by up to 40.5% for the low payload size and not less than of 44.5% for the upper payload size. Meanwhile, for all sizes of payload applied to the large-scale ad hoc wireless sensor network, it points out an increasing throughput whilst the network handles more connections among sensor nodes. In term of dropped packet, it confirms that a fewer data drops at smaller number of connecting nodes on the network where the protocol outperforms not less than of 34% for low payload size of 30 Bytes. The similar trend obviously happens on packet loss. In addition, the simulation results show that the smaller payload size performs better than the bigger one in term of network latency, where the payload size of 30 Bytes contributes by up to 41.7% less delay compared with the contribution of the payload size of 90 Bytes.
Supervisor: Al-Raweshidy, H. ; Abbod, M. Sponsor: Ministry of Research, Technology, and Higher Education, Republic of Indonesia
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Network simulator NS-2 ; Hidden nodes problem ; Large scale network ; Power efficiency ; Network bottleneck problem