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Title: Cardiac risk assessment using 2D and 3D transthoracic echocardiography in patients undergoing haemodialysis
Author: Chiu, Diana Yuan Yng
ISNI:       0000 0004 5920 3005
Awarding Body: University of Manchester
Current Institution: University of Manchester
Date of Award: 2016
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Haemodialysis (HD) patients have a high mortality risk and most have echocardiographic evidence of abnormal cardiac structure or function. Markers, such as left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), show association with adverse outcome in the general population and can aid in clinical decision making. The aim of this research was to explore the prognostic utility of established and novel two-dimensional (2DE) and three-dimensional transthoracic echocardiographic (RT3DE) techniques in HD patients. Adult maintenance HD patients from a single tertiary nephrology centre including satellite dialysis units were enrolled. Exclusion criteria were if patients were clinically unstable, unable to consent, or if required ambulance transportation for echocardiography visits. Consented patients underwent 2DE with speckle tracking (STE), RT3DE and VicorderTm measurements of pulse wave velocity (PWV) on a non-dialysis day, after the short inter-dialytic break. Clinical phenotype data, 3-month averaged blood results and dialysis prescriptions were obtained from the hospital electronic patient records. All patients screened were followed-up until death, renal transplantation, moving out of the region, or 16th November 2015. Regression analysis was used to assess the cross-sectional relationship between echocardiographic parameters. Relationship of echocardiographic parameters with outcome was assessed by Cox regression analysis. The first study explored whether patients recruited had similar characteristics and survival compared with patients who declined consent or who were excluded from the study. Patients who declined consent had an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for all-cause mortality compared with recruited patients of 1.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-2.52, and excluded patients had an adjusted HR of 1.30, 95% CI 0.75-2.25. Recruited patients may be a 'fitter' population and this needs to be considered when interpreting results. The second study reports that when global longitudinal strain (GLS) is combined in a multivariable model with PWV; PWV is superior to GLS in its association with mortality (adjusted HR 1.23, 95% CI 1.03-1.47 versus HR 1.00, 95% CI 0.86-1.17). When this analysis was repeated in a sub-group of patients with LVH, neither GLS nor PWV were associated with mortality, whilst both were prognostically significant in a preserved LVEF sub-group (PWV: HR 1.23, 95% CI 1.04-1.4 and GLS: HR 1.16, 95% CI 1.01-1.33). Therefore GLS has different prognostic implications in different patient sub-groups. The third study explored whether tissue motion mitral annular displacement (TMAD) measured by STE may be a more useful alternative to GLS as it measures strain but is quicker and less user-dependent. TMAD was closely correlated to GLS (r=-0.614, p<0.001), but had no prognostic power for mortality (adjusted HR 1.04,95% CI 0.91-1.19). The correlation between 2DE and RT3DE determined LV mass and volume measurements and the prognostic significance of RT3DE measurements were assessed. Although there was good correlation between 2DE and RT3DE LV volume measurements, 2DE overestimated LV mass compared to RT3DE. RT3DE measures gave no added prognostic value, and there were added difficulties in obtaining adequate images for RT3DE (35% of patients who had adequate 2D images). Furthermore, although RT3DE determined LV mechanical dyssynchrony index was prolonged in HD patients compared with published general population controls, it failed to show any prognostic significance (HR 2.16, 95% CI 0.96-4.89) for mortality, but was associated with hospitalisation for heart failure (HR 1.03, 95% CI 1.00-1.06). These results indicate that novel measurements of sub-clinical cardiac dysfunction have the potential to aid prognostication in this high risk population. Follow-up studies exploring the longitudinal change in these parameters is ongoing.
Supervisor: Kalra, Philip ; Sinha, Smeeta ; Green, Darren Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Dialysis ; Mortality ; Cardiac ; Echocardiography ; Left ventricular hypertrophy ; Strain