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Title: Behaviour of welded tubular structures in fire
Author: Ozyurt, Emre
ISNI:       0000 0004 5919 8998
Awarding Body: University of Manchester
Current Institution: University of Manchester
Date of Award: 2015
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This thesis presents the results of a research project to develop methods to carry out fire safety design of welded steel tubular trusses at elevated temperatures due to fire exposure. It deals with three subjects: resistance of welded tubular joints at elevated temperatures, effects of large truss deflection in fire on member design and effects of localised heating. The objectives of the project are achieved through numerical finite element modelling at elevated temperatures using the commercial Finite Element software ABAQUS v6.10-1 (2011). Validation of the simulation model for joints is based on comparison against the test results of Nguyen et al. (2010) and Kurobane et al. (1986). Validation of the simulation model for trusses is through checking against the test results of Edwards (2004) and Liu et al. (2010).For welded tubular joints, extensive numerical simulations have been conducted on T-, Y-, X-, N- and non-overlapped K-joints subjected to brace axial compression or tension, considering a wide range of geometrical parameters. Uniform temperature distribution was assumed for both the chord and brace members. Results of the numerical simulations indicate for gap K- and N-joints (two brace members, one in tension and the other in compression) and for T-, Y- and X-joints with the brace member under axial tensile load (one brace member only, in tension), it is suitable to use the same ambient temperature calculation equation as in the CIDECT (2010) or EN 1993-1-8 (CEN, 2005a) design guides and simply replace the ambient temperature strength of steel with the elevated temperature value. However, for T-, Y- and X-joints under brace compression load (one brace member only, in compression), the effect of large chord deformation should be considered. Large chord deformation changes the chord geometry and invalidates the assumed yield line mechanism at ambient temperature. For approximation, the results of this research indicate that it is acceptable to modify the ambient temperature joint strength by a reduction factor for the elastic modulus of steel at elevated temperatures. In the current fire safety design method for steel truss, a member based approach is used. In this approach, the truss member forces are calculated at ambient temperature based on linear elastic analysis. These forces are then used to calculate the truss member limiting temperatures. An extensive parametric study has been carried out to investigate whether this method is appropriate. The parametric study encompasses different design parameters over a wide range of values, including truss type, joint type, truss span-to-depth ratio, critical member slenderness, applied load ratio, number of brace members, initial imperfection and thermal elongation. The results of this research show that due to a truss undergoing large displacements at elevated temperatures, some truss members (compression brace members near the truss centre) experience large increases in member forces. Therefore, using the ambient temperature member force, as in the current truss fire safety design method, may overestimate the truss member critical temperature by 100 °C. A method has been proposed to analytically calculate the increase in brace compressive force due to large truss deformation. In this method, the maximum truss displacement is assumed to be span/30. A comparison of the results calculated using the proposed method against the truss parametric study results has shown good agreement with the two sets of results, with the calculation results generally being slightly on the safe side. When different members of a truss are heated to different temperatures due to localised fire exposure, the brace members in compression experience increased compression due to restrained thermal expansion. To calculate the critical temperature of a brace member in a localised heated truss, it is necessary to consider this effect of restrained thermal expansion. It is also necessary to consider the beneficial effects of the adjacent members being heated, which tends to reduce the increase in compressive force in the critical member under consideration. Again, an extensive set of parametric studies have been conducted, for different load ratio, slenderness and axial restraint ratio. The results of this parametric study suggest that to calculate the critical temperature of a brace member, it is not necessary to consider the effects of the third or further adjacent members being heated. For the remainder of the heated members, this thesis has proposed a linear elastic, static analysis method at ambient temperature to calculate the additional compressive force (some negative, indicating tension) in the critical member caused by the heated members (including the critical member itself and the adjacent members). The additional compressive force is then used to calculate the limiting temperature of the critical member. For this purpose, the approximate analytical equation of Wang et al. (2010) has been demonstrated to be suitable.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Turkish Government
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Finite Element model ; Circular Hollow Section (CHS) ; Square Hollow Section (SHS) ; Ultimate capacity ; Elevated temperatures ; Critical temperature ; Localised fire