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Title: Characterisation and novel applications of glass beads as dosimeters in radiotherapy
Author: Jafari, Shakardokht
ISNI:       0000 0004 5918 377X
Awarding Body: University of Surrey
Current Institution: University of Surrey
Date of Award: 2015
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The intent of external beam radiotherapy is to deliver as high a radiation dose as possible to tumour volume whilst minimizing the dose to surrounding normal tissues. Recent development of techniques such as intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR) aim to extend this capability. The main feature of these techniques is to use beams which often contain small fields and very steep dose gradients. These present several dosimetric challenges including loss of charge particle equilibrium (CPE), partial occlusion of the direct-beam source and steep fall-off in dose in the penumbra. Dosimeters which are small in size relative to the radiation field dimensions are recommended for such conditions. The particular glass beads studied herein have several potentially favourable physical characteristics; they are small in size (1 to 3 mm diameter), chemically inert, inexpensive, readily available and reusable. The dosimetric characterisation of glass beads has been obtained by irradiating them in various radiotherapy beams of kilo-voltage and mega-voltage photons, megavoltage electrons, protons and carbon ions. They exhibit minimal fading compared with commercial LiF thermo-luminescent (TL) dosimeters, have high TL light transparency, high sensitivity and a large dynamic dose range that remains linear from 1 cGy to 100 Gy They have also been shown to be independent of dose rate and beam incidence angle, as well as having a low variation in response with energy over a range of megavoltage photon and electron beams. The latter characteristic is of importance, where spectral changes may occur as a function of field size and off axis location and for the use of dosimeters in postal audit situations where each institution may have slightly different quality index (QI) for their respective photon energies thus ensuring that the calibration is still valid. These properties suggest their practical use as TL dosimeters for radiotherapy dosimetry. Investigations have been performed to evaluate the feasibility of using glass beads in treatment plan verification, small field radiation dosimetry and postal dosimetry audit.
Supervisor: Nisbet, Andrew ; Spyrou, Nicholas ; Clark, Catharine ; Bradley, David Sponsor: University of Surrey ; Schlumberger Foundation ; Kabul Medical University
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available