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Title: Burden or empowerment? : the impact of migration and remittances on women left behind in Morocco
Author: Lenoel , Audrey
ISNI:       0000 0004 5922 5634
Awarding Body: University of Bristol
Current Institution: University of Bristol
Date of Award: 2014
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An increasing interest in gender in migration research has brought the female migrant to the forefront of debates. In contrast, the women staying in the origin communities - whose lives tend to be significantly affected by migration - have been largely neglected, or portrayed as passive remittance recipients. This thesis seeks to address this gap by examining how predominantly male labour migration affects women staying behind in Morocco. It investigates whether internal and international migration and remittances enhance women's living standards and empowerment in the household and community of origin, and whether they contribute to socio-cultural change in a traditional society. This study adopts a mixed methods research design combining the quantitative analysis of the 2006/7 Morocco Living Standard Measurement Survey (MLSS) data and the qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews undertaken with fifteen women in left-behind families in a rural town of Southern Morocco (Souss-Massa Draa region). Based on the survey data, the study produces a statistical portrait of women left behind in Morocco and of their living standards. Drawing on theories challenging the unitary model of household resources allocation, it then interrogates women's access to remittances and other household resources, in light of the interview data. The analysis extends the investigation from migrants' wives to other family members, such as mothers and sisters, and reveals the significance of factors like the woman's stage in her life cycle, her kin relationship to the migrant, and the household structure and headship. The study proceeds to analyse the effects of migration on women's engagement with the larger community, with a particular emphasis on their participation in the labour market, based on both survey and qualitative interview data. The results are discussed with respect to their overall implications for women's empowerment. This thesis seeks to contribute to the debates relating to the migration development nexus, by highlighting the benefits and constraints for women from migration systems predicated on a patriarchal social order.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available