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Title: The role of immunological receptors CD74 and CD44 in association with the macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) on human breast cancer derived cells
Author: Al Ssadh, Hussain
ISNI:       0000 0004 5921 7300
Awarding Body: University of Essex
Current Institution: University of Essex
Date of Award: 2016
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Synergistic interaction between pairs of membrane-bound receptors has been linked to signalling, cell communication and tumour progression. This study has shown that cluster of differentiation (CD) 74 and CD44 act in synergy and are susceptible to the effect of the macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF). MIF is a 12.5 kDa chemokine-like inflammatory mediator, whose ligand is the transmembrane receptor CD74. Recent data suggests that CD74 is involved in proinflammatory responses and tumorigenesis but detailed mechanisms are not fully understood. In normal cells CD74 functions as a chaperone of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR biosynthesis and is expressed in antigen presenting cells in the absence of tumours. Notably, CD44 is also a transmembrane receptor and member of a family of cell adhesion molecules responsible for adhesion between adjacent cells (e.g. antigen presenting cells) and cells in the extracellular matrix. Western blotting and flow cytometry were employed to determine the quantitative expression of CD74, MIF and CD44 in three distinct breast tumour cell lines: CAMA-1, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435. All three cell lines showed a high expression of CD74, MIF and CD44. Modulation studies showed that IFN-γ and LPS can play a significant role in regulating the expression of CD74, proliferation and cell migration in CAMA-1 and MDA-MB-231 cells; suggesting that CD74 might be involved in controlling immunogenicity and immunoediting of breast cancer cells. To investigate the interaction of CD74 with CD44 and MIF, confocal microscopy and co-immunoprecipitation techniques were used. The three molecules form a multimeric complex in cytoplasmic compartments as measured by confocal microscopy, suggesting a mechanistic mode of action; in addition CD74, MIF and CD44 showed significant quantitative variations on all breast cancer derived cells. Knockdown of CD74 by CD74 siRNA significantly reduced CAMA-1 and MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation but increased the level of apoptotic cells. These data suggests that CD74, MIF and CD44, might facilitate signalling and hence could affect tumour progression. Measuring the co-expression levels of CD74, MIF and CD44 could potentially be used as a ‘biomarker signature’ for monitoring breast cancer tumours at different stages of the disease.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: RC0254 Neoplasms. Tumors. Oncology (including Cancer)