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Title: Effects of geometry and gas composition on swirling flow
Author: Baej, Hesham
ISNI:       0000 0004 5919 6271
Awarding Body: Cardiff University
Current Institution: Cardiff University
Date of Award: 2015
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Lean premixed swirl stabilised combustion is regarded as one of the most successful technologies for flame control and NOx reduction in gas turbines. Important characteristics of these flows are good mixing, flame stability through the formation of a Central Recirculation Zone, and low emissions at lean conditions as a consequence of the low operating temperature. This project presents a series of experiments and numerical simulations using commercial software (ANSYS) to determine the behaviour and impact on the blowoff process at various swirl numbers, nozzle geometries and gas compositions at same power outputs using confined and open conditions. Experiments were performed using a generic premixed swirl burner. The Central Recirculation Zone and the associated turbulent structure contained within it were obtained through CFD analyses providing details of the structures and the Damkölher Number (Da) close to blowoff limits. The results show how the strength and size of the recirculation zone are highly influenced by the blend and nozzle geometry, with a shift of Da and turbulence based on carbon-hydrogen ratio, shearing flows and Reynolds number. The Central Recirculation Zone was also measured and correlated to the blowoff phenomenon. A trend was found between the CRZ size/strength, the different compositions of gases used and the burner nozzle. Chemical kinetic analyses were carried out using PRO-CHEMKIN to determine flame speeds and chemical properties needed for CFD calculations. Experiments were performed using Phase Locked PIV and High Speed Photography. The Central Recirculation Zone and its turbulence were measured and correlated providing details of the structure close to blowoff. It was found that the nozzle angle has a small effect on the LBO at low flow rates using all mixtures. During the tests, the Coanda effect was observed with some geometries, thus further research was carried out regarding the transition of this phenomenon. It was found that the process occurs at a particular geometry and step size, with a shift in frequency produced by the leading structure due to the entrainment of air and strength of the latter. Stability of the flow occurs after a Coanda Vortex Breakdown (COVB) has occurred, a process similar to the one observed in the central region of the flow under regular swirling open flames. As the step size is increased, the COVB will evolve into a slower Trapped Vortex (TV).
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)