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Title: Development of an online progressive mathematical model of needle deflection for application to robotic-assisted percutaneous interventions
Author: Salehzadeh Nobari, Elnaz
ISNI:       0000 0004 5371 9596
Awarding Body: Imperial College London
Current Institution: Imperial College London
Date of Award: 2015
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A highly flexible multipart needle is under development in the Mechatronics in Medicine Laboratory at Imperial College, with the aim to achieve multi-curvature trajectories inside biological soft tissue, such as to avoid obstacles during surgery. Currently, there is no dedicated software or analytical methodology for the analysis of the needle's behaviour during the insertion process, which is instead described empirically on the basis of experimental trials on synthetic tissue phantoms. This analysis is crucial for needle and insertion trajectory design purposes. It is proposed that a real-time, progressive, mathematical model of the needle deflection during insertion be developed. This model can serve three purposes, namely, offline needle and trajectory design in a forward solution of the model, when the loads acting on needle from the substrate are known; online, real-time identification of the loads that act on the needle in a reverse solution, when the deflections at discrete points along the needle length are known; and the development of a sensitivity matrix, which enables the calculation of the corrective loads that are required to drive the needle back on track, if any deviations occur away from a predefined trajectory. Previously developed mathematical models of needle deflection inside soft tissue are limited to small deflection and linear strain. In some cases, identical tip path and body shape after full insertion of the needle are assumed. Also, the axial load acting on the needle is either ignored or is calculated from empirical formulae, while its inclusion would render the model nonlinear even for small deflection cases. These nonlinearities are a result of the effects of the axial and transverse forces at the tip being co-dependent, restricting the calculation of the independent effects of each on the needle's deflection. As such, a model with small deflection assumptions incorporating tip axial forces can be called 'quasi-nonlinear' and a methodology is proposed here to tackle the identification of such axial force in the linear range. During large deflection of the needle, discrepancies between the shape of the needle after the insertion and its tip path, computed during the insertion, also significantly increase, causing errors in a model based on the assumption that they are the same. Some of the models developed to date have also been dependent on existing or experimentally derived material models of soft tissue developed offline, which is inefficient for surgical applications, where the biological soft tissue can change radically and experimentation on the patient is limited. Conversely, a model is proposed in this thesis which, when solved inversely, provides an estimate for the contact stiffness of the substrate in a real-time manner. The study and the proposed model and techniques involved are limited to two dimensional projections of the needle movements, but can be easily extended to the 3-dimensional case. Results which demonstrate the accuracy and validity of the models developed are provided on the basis of simulations and via experimental trials of a multi-part 2D steering needle in gelatine.
Supervisor: Rodriguez Y Baena, Ferdinando Sponsor: Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available