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Title: Fungicide-resistance management tactics : impacts on Zymoseptoria tritici populations
Author: Dooley, Hilda
ISNI:       0000 0004 5369 8449
Awarding Body: University of Reading
Current Institution: University of Reading
Date of Award: 2015
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Azoles and Succinate Dehydrogenase Inhibitors (SDHIs) are the main fungicides available for septoria tritici blotch control, causal agent Zymoseptoria tritici. Decline in azole sensitivity, in combination with European legislation, poses a threat to wheat production in Ireland. Azole fungicides select CYP51 mutations differentially; it was hypothesised that using combinations of azoles could be an effective anti-resistance tool. Naturally inoculated field experiments were carried out in order to understand the impacts of using combinations of azoles, epoxiconazole and metconazole, on azole sensitivity. Approximately 3700 isolates were isolated and their sensitivity to both azoles analysed. Findings showed that limiting the number of applications, by alternating each fungicide, slowed selection for reduced azole sensitivity. Limiting azole use by reducing doses did not reduce selection for decreased azole sensitivity. Although not complete, cross-resistance was observed between the two azoles, which will lead to general reduction in azole sensitivity. A sub-selection of isolates from each treatment at each location were analysed for changes in the CYP51 gene. Sequence analysis identified 49 combinations of mutations in the CYP51 gene, and three different inserts in the CYP51 promoter. Intragenic recombination also featured in these populations. Baseline studies of five new SDHIs were carried out on 209 naturally infected, non-SDHI-treated isolates. With the exception of fluopyram, cross-resistance was apparent between the SDHIs. Analysis of 2300 isolates found that when compared to the solo products, mixing the SDHI isopyrazam and the azole epoxiconazole increased epoxiconazole sensitivity, but had no apparent effect on isopyrazam sensitivity. SDHI resistance-conferring mutations were absent in the baseline and experimental isolates. As long as azoles are used, Z. tritici populations will continue to evolve towards resistance. Combining different modes-of-action, SDHIs and multi-sites, with azoles will relieve some of that selective pressure. To get the best out of available fungicides, they should be used in combination with host resistance and good crop management practices.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available