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Title: Pharmacogenetics of antiretroviral drugs used for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV during pregnancy and lactation
Author: Olagunju, Adeniyi
Awarding Body: University of Liverpool
Current Institution: University of Liverpool
Date of Award: 2015
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The use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) during pregnancy and lactation has significantly reduced the rate of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV. However, pregnancy is known to affect the pharmacokinetics of many drugs, including key antiretroviral (ARV) drugs. In addition, ARV use during lactation raises questions about unintended exposure of breastfed infants to maternal drugs through breast milk. For drugs with significant genetic contribution to observed pharmacokinetic variability, we hypothesised that polymorphisms in drug disposition genes may accentuate or attenuate pregnancy-induced changes and/or breastfed infants’ exposure. HIV positive pregnant women and nursing mothers taking efavirenz (EFV)- or nevirapine (NVP)-based ART were recruited from three hospitals in Benue State, Nigeria. A novel strategy involving a preliminary pharmacogenetic association study was used to investigate the magnitude of pregnancy-induced changes in EFV and NVP pharmacokinetics in women stratified by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in disposition genes. EFV apparent clearance (CL/F) was higher and AUC0-24, Cmax and Cmin were significantly lower in pregnant compared with postpartum women. When stratified based on the SNP with the highest predictive power, pregnant women with CYP2B6 516GG genotype were especially at risk. In the NVP cohort, exposure was also significantly lower in pregnant compared with postpartum women. When stratified based on composite CYP2B6 516G > T and 983T > C genotypes, Cmin was below target in most patients with combined CYP2B6 516GG and 983TT during pregnancy and postpartum. Cmin was below target in at least 50% of pregnant women with one or two variant alleles, compared with 0% in postpartum women. The intensive pharmacokinetics of EFV and NVP in breast milk and pharmacogenetic predictors were described for the first time. Breast milk pharmacokinetic parameters of EFV in breast milk differed significantly between patient groups stratified by CYP2B6 516G > T. The median time averaged milk-to-plasma concentration (M/P) ratio was 1.10 (range: 0.57-1.71) and the paediatric dose weight-adjusted exposure index was 4.05% (1.08-13.8). The resulting infant plasma concentration was influenced by CYP2B6 516G > T, highest up to 8 days of age at 1590 ng/mL (190-4631) and decreased by about 90% in the age stratum 9 days to 3 months. NVP AUC0-12, Cmax and Cmin in breast milk were significantly lower in patients with composite CYP2B6 516GG/983TT than those with at least one variant allele. The M/P ratio was 0.88 (0.74-1.2) and paediatric dose weight-adjusted exposure index was 3.64% (1.99-9.88). Infant plasma concentration differed significantly based on CYP2B6 516G > T/983T > C and CYP3A4 20230G > A (*1G), highest in those exposed through both breast milk and post-exposure prophylaxis compared with either alone. A breastfeeding physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to predict infant exposure to maternal drugs through breast milk was developed and validated, with over 90% of all individual observed data points within the predictive interval. This thesis presents details about five different studies where these findings were observed. Their clinical implications in the context of current knowledge and practice were also explored.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: R Medicine (General) ; RG Gynecology and obstetrics ; RJ Pediatrics ; RM Therapeutics. Pharmacology