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Title: Development of SiOxNy waveguides for integrated quantum photonics
Author: Floether, Frederik
ISNI:       0000 0004 5372 1418
Awarding Body: University of Cambridge
Current Institution: University of Cambridge
Date of Award: 2015
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The development of integrated quantum photonics is integral to many areas of quantum information science, in particular linear optical quantum computing. In this context, a diversity of physical systems is being explored and thus versatility and adaptability are important prerequisites for any candidate platform. Silicon oxynitride is a promising material because its refractive index can be varied over a wide range. This dissertation describes the development of silicon oxynitride waveguides for applications in the field of integrated quantum photonics. The project consisted of three stages: design, characterisation, and application. First, the parameter space was studied through simulations. The structures were optimised to achieve low-loss devices with a small footprint at a wavelength of 900 nm. Buried channel waveguides with a cross-section of 1.6 ?m x 1.6 ?m and a core (cladding) refractive index of 1.545 (1.505) were chosen. Second, following their fabrication with plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition, electron beam lithography, and reactive ion etching, the waveguides were characterised. The refractive index was shown to be tunable from the silica to the silicon nitride regime. Optimised tapers significantly improved the coupling efficiency. The minimum bend radius was measured to be less than 2 mm. Propagation losses as low as 1.45 dB cm-1 were achieved. Directional couplers with coupling ratios ranging from 0 to 1 were realised. Third, building blocks for linear optical quantum computing were demonstrated. Reconfigurable quantum circuits consisting of Mach-Zehnder interferometers with near perfect visibilities were fabricated along with a four-port switch. The potential of quantum speedup was illustrated by carrying out the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm with a fidelity of 100 % using on-demand single photons from a quantum dot. This dissertation presents the first implementation of tunable Mach-Zehnder interferometers, which act on single photons, based on silicon oxynitride waveguides. Furthermore, for the first time silicon oxynitride photonic quantum circuits were operated with on-demand single photons. Accordingly, this work has created a platform for the development of integrated quantum photonics.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council ; Toshiba Research Europe Ltd ; Semiconductor Physics Group of the Cavendish Laboratory
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
Keywords: quantum computing ; waveguide ; quantum photonics ; silicon oxynitride ; semiconductor ; quantum information ; quantum algorithm ; Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm ; qubit ; linear optical quantum computing