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Title: Time course analysis of complex enzyme systems
Author: Rentergent, Julius
ISNI:       0000 0004 5369 9548
Awarding Body: University of Manchester
Current Institution: University of Manchester
Date of Award: 2015
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In studies of enzyme kinetics, reaction time courses are often condensed into a single set of initial rates describing the rate at the start of the reaction. This set is then analysed with the Henri-Michaelis-Menten equation. However, this process necessarily removes information from experimental data and diminishes its statistical significance due to a reduction of available data points. Further, if the examined system does not approach steady-state rapidly, the application of the steady-state-assumption can lead to flawed conclusions. Here, the analysis of two complex enzyme systems by numerical integration of kinetic rate equations is demonstrated. DNA polymerase catalyses the synthesis of DNA in a reaction that involves two substrates, DNA template and dNTP, both of which are highly heterogeneous in nature. The tight binding of DNA to DNA polymerase and its polymer properties prohibit the application of the initial-rate approach. By combining an explicit DNA binding step with a steady-state dNTP incorporation on a template of finite length, the DNA binding parameters and the dNTP incorporation steady-state parameters were estimated from processive polymerisation data in a global regression analysis. This approach is described in Chapter 2 and the results are in good agreement with previously published values. Further properties were investigated in studies of the temperature dependence and solvent isotope dependence of the kinetics. The processive polymerisation of DNA template was monitored using the fluorophore PicoGreen in a simple and inexpensive method described in Chapter 3. The catalytic cycle of ethanolamine ammonia lyase involves the homoloysis of the Co-C bond within the intrinsic B12 cofactor. This homolysis results in the formation of a Co(II)-adenosyl radical intermediate, which can be monitored using stopped-flow spectroscopy. The stopped-flow transients observed for EAL and related enzymes have long been difficult to analyse and interpret, possibly due to rapid methyl group rotation on the substrate. In Chapter 4 of this thesis we were able to rationalise this behaviour using numerical integration of the rate equations of a branched 16-state-kinetic model to fit stopped-flow transients in a global regression analysis. We were able to determine some intrinsic rate constants, and showed that the initial hydrogen atom transfer step is unlikely to have an inflated primary kinetic isotope effect, despite previous claims. More generally, this study demonstrates that the numerical integration analysis used here is likely to be applicable to a broad range of enzyme reaction kinetics.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: BBSRC
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: time course analysis ; progress curve ; enzyme kinetics ; DNA polymerase ; ethanolamine ammonia lyase ; numerical integration