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Title: Prevalence and clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors in Welsh adolescents
Author: Rees, Anwen Mair
Awarding Body: Cardiff Metropolitan University
Current Institution: Cardiff Metropolitan University
Date of Award: 2012
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The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and clustering of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in Welsh adolescents from different socioeconomic status (SES) and ethnicity. A cohort of 490 boys and 657 girls, aged 12.6 ± 0.7 years, were assessed for CVD risk factors. Socioeconomic status was determined by school attended, and ethnicity via self-reporting. Measurements included indices of obesity, blood pressure, diet, physical activity, aerobic fitness, blood lipids and lipoproteins, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and high-molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin. Two or more risk factors were present in 37.4% of the cohort, with 32.1% classed as overweight and 37.2% reported as unfit. Moreover, 75.5% consumed diets high in saturated fat and 13.3% had elevated total cholesterol (TC) levels. Low SES adolescents had higher levels of adiposity and higher blood pressure, lower fitness levels, a more atherogenic blood lipid profile and consumed diets lower in fibre content, compared to adolescents from a higher SES. Ethnic minority adolescents had significantly higher body fat and blood pressure levels, and significantly lower fitness levels compared to White adolescents. Overweight individuals had an increased clustering of risk factors. Adiposity was significantly associated with blood pressure and blood lipid measures. However, TC, hs-CRP and HMW-adiponectin were significantly associated with central skinfold measures. Fitness was found to be associated with blood lipids, hs-CRP and HMW-adiponectin. Fibre intake was significantly associated with a greater number of CVD risk factors compared to fat intake. Adolescents from a low SES and/or from an ethnic minority population exhibit a higher number of risk factors compared to White adolescents and those from a higher SES. Future interventions that are developed must target increasing physical activity and fitness levels and decreasing adiposity levels, with special consideration and attention given to those populations with increased prevalence of risk factors.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available