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Title: Performance analysis and modelling of spectrum handoff schemes in cognitive radio networks. modelling and analysis of spectrum handoff decision schemes in cognitive radio networks using the queuing theory and simulation for licensed and unlicensed spectrum bands
Author: Zahed, Salah Mohammed Bashir
Awarding Body: University of Bradford
Current Institution: University of Bradford
Date of Award: 2013
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Recently, wireless access has become an essential part of modern society. Consequently, the demand for new wireless applications and services, as well as the number of wireless users, are gradually increasing. Given that this amount of expansion is eventually controlled by the available radio frequency spectrum, government regulatory agencies have recently adopted a strict approach to the licensing of limited amounts of spectrum to different entities (e.g., public safety, military, service providers, unlicensed devices, and TV). All of them possess exclusive transmissions to their assigned frequency channels. A new study on spectrum efficiency revealed big geographic and temporal variations in spectrum utilisation, ranging from 15-85% in the bands below 3GHz. These variations were less at frequencies above this figure. Recently, the Cognitive Radio (CR) has risen as an encouraging piece of technology to improve spectrum efficiency and to solve the problem of spectrum scarcity. This is because CR allows the secondary (unlicensed) users to occupy unused licensed spectrum bands temporarily, given that the interference of the primary (licensed) users is prohibited or minimised. In this thesis, various spectrum handoff management schemes have been proposed in order to improve the performance evaluation for CR networks. The proposed spectrum handoff schemes use the Opportunistic Spectrum Access (OSA) concept to utilise available spectrum bands. The handoff Secondary Users (SUs) have a higher priority to occupy available spectrum channels in the licensed and unlicensed spectrum bands without interfering with the legacy spectrum owner, i.e. primary users (PUs). However, existing spectrum handoff management schemes in CR networks do not provide high transmission opportunities for handoff secondary users to utilise the available radio spectrum resources. The first part of this thesis addresses the issue of spectrum handoff management in a licensed spectrum band environment. In this case, both reactive and proactive spectrum handoff schemes are proposed. Queuing theory or/and simulation experiments have been used to evaluate the performance of the proposed schemes and compare them with other existing schemes. Handoff delay has mainly been used to investigate the impact of successive handoff operations on the performance of the proposed CR networks. Implemented models have shown an improvement in the adopted performance measures. According to the achieved results, the improvement of the proposed, prioritised handoff schemes in some cases is approximately 75% when compared with existing schemes. On the other hand, the second part of this research proposed a prioritised spectrum handoff scheme in a heterogeneous spectrum environment, which is composed of a pool of licensed and unlicensed spectrum channels. In general, the availability of substantial numbers of the licensed spectrum channels is the key benefit of using this type of radio spectrum channel. Whereas, accessing with equal rights for all types of users is the main advantage of using unlicensed spectrum channels. In this respect, no transmission interruptions occur once a user obtains a channel. In addition, the proposed schemes use only the unlicensed spectrum channels as their backup channels. This enables the user to resume interrupted transmission in the case of the spectrum handoff operation (mainly; due to the appearance of the primary users), and thus facilitates a SUs communication. The proposed principle is investigated using a retrial queuing theory as well as extensive simulation experiments, and is compared with another non-prioritised scheme which do not give any preference to handoff SUs over new SUs. The results indicate that the proposed model has improved on current average handoff delay. This thesis contributes to knowledge by further enhancing the efficient utilisation of available radio spectrum resources and therefore subsequently provides an improvement in the spectrum capacity for wireless cognitive radio networks.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Cognitive radio networks, Spectrum handoff, Handoff delay, Queuing theory.