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Title: Maximising the benefit of distributed wind generation through intertemporal Active Network Management
Author: Gill, Simon
Awarding Body: University of Strathclyde
Current Institution: University of Strathclyde
Date of Award: 2014
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The role of distribution networks is changing. There is a significant drive, influenced by climate change and security of supply issues, to move electricity generation towards renewable technologies. This is leading to an increase in demand for renewable generation connections at the distribution network level and putting pressure on distribution network operators to change the 'fit-and-forget' philosophy of network operation to include more active approaches. In the UK this is seen through the development of Active Network Management schemes which manage distributed generation in real-time, applying constraints when required to maintain network limits. In parallel, technologies have been developed that are capable of providing intertemporal flexibility, of which two particular examples are energy storage and flexible demand. The objective of the thesis is to answer the questions: How can energy storage and flexible demand be scheduled in a second-generation Active Network Management scheme? And how should they be operated to gain most benefit from distributed wind generation? To answer these questions, the thesis develops and uses tools to study the optimisation of second-generation Active Network Management schemes including intertemporal technologies. The tools developed include a Dynamic Optimal Power Flow algorithm for management of energy storage and flexible demand. The thesis provides the first fully flexible model of energy storage in this context, the first implementation of principles-of-access in an optimal power flow, and the first detailed study of the role of energy storage and flexible demand in managing thermal limits and reducing curtailment of distributed wind generation. The thesis also develops the theory of Dynamic Locational Marginal Pricing based on the economic information contained in an optimal solution to a Dynamic Optimal Power Flow. The thesis shows this to be a useful way of understanding the economic impact of intertemporal flexibility and monetary flows in markets which contain them. The thesis goes on to provide a detailed report of the application of Dynamic Optimal Power Flow and Dynamic Locational Marginal Pricing to an islanded Active Network Management scheme currently in deployment in the UK. This highlights the ability of the tools developed to contribute to future projects. A conclusions of the thesis is that DOPF provides a useful method of scheduling flexible devices such as energy storage and power systems. It takes full account of network constraints and limitations, and as applied in this thesis, the most complete models of the intertemporal effects of energy storage and flexible demand to date. The studies contained in the thesis show that energy storage and flexible demand can increase the benefit of distributed wind generation in Active Network Management by minimising curtailment and transferring generated electricity to periods during which the energy has greatest value in offsetting expensive, fossil fuel based generation. The thesis notes the importance of a useful definition of the 'benefit' of wind generation in terms of global objectives such as minimising emissions rather than interim objectives such as maximising generation from renewables. The thesis discusses the importance of losses in energy storage, and the relationship of storage and network losses with curtailment of wind and the lost opportunity of generating electricity. In terms of losses, the extension of existing economic analysis methods leads to the result that flexibility will only operate between time-steps where the ratio of prices is greater than the round-trip losses of the store. Within this constraint, effective use of energy storage is shown to result from regular charging and discharging. The comparison between energy storage and flexible demand shows that where there are few losses associated with flexibility in demand it is significantly more successful than energy storage at mitigating the effects of variability in wind. The final study of an islanded distribution network with wind curtailment, concludes that energy storage is less effective that flexible demand at reducing wind curtailment, but can provide benefit through management of peak demand. Flexible demand, in the form of flexible domestic electric heating, is shown to have the ability to provide a significant benefit in terms of reduced wind curtailment. This ability is further enhanced for island situations if demand has a frequency-responsive component.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available