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Title: Temporal intelligence in leadership : the conceptualisation and evaluation of temporal individual differences among leaders
Author: Doyle, Andrew
Awarding Body: University of Worcester
Current Institution: University of Worcester
Date of Award: 2012
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Time is an important research variable within an organisational setting at an individual level of analysis. For example, research has shown that the time-related behaviours of individual employees predict outcome variables such as well-being and performance (Francis-Smythe & Robertson, 2003; Slocombe & Bluedorn; 1999). There is, however, a limited understanding of the role of time in leadership, as highlighted by a number of scholars (Halbesleben, Novicevic, Harvey & Buckley, 2003; Gill, 2012). Adopting an individual level of analysis, this research aimed to identify the time-related behaviours and cognitions that leaders express to the individuals they lead (i.e. their followers) and how these vary among individual leaders. Following an individual-differences approach, a psychological construct, temporal intelligence (TI), was developed and evaluated through questionnaire research to represent the differences that occur among leaders in terms of the timerelated behaviours and cognitions expressed to their followers. The results were used to draw inferences about the nature of the TI construct and to explore the implications of TI for both leadership research and practice. A conceptual model of TI was initially developed through two literature reviews that examined over 500 articles originating from research on both time and leadership. The model proposed 13 dimensions of time. A repertory-grid interview study was conducted with 16 leaders to identify behaviours and cognitions representing the 13 dimensions of time depicted in the model. The findings from the interviews were used to develop items for the Temporal Intelligence Questionnaire (TI-Q). Two empirical studies were conducted with the TI-Q. Study 1 (n=203 leaders) used factor and reliability analysis to reduce the original 13 dimensions of time proposed by the TI model to eight dimensions, which were represented by 79 items. Results were interpreted to conclude that there are eight dimensions characterising the time-related behavioural and cognitive differences among leaders. In study 2, 82 leaders completed the revised 79-item TI-Q, NEO PI-R personality measure and 5 Multi-factor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ 5X). The MLQ 5X represented both leadership behaviour according to the Full-range Leadership Theory (FRLT) and leadership effectiveness (as self-reported by the leader). Results showed that TI represents behaviours and cognitions distinct from those measured by personality and leadership style (aligned to FRLT). Results were also shown to bridge the gap between time as a research variable at an individual level of analysis and the current conceptualisation of leadership behaviour captured by FRLT that posits the notions of transformational and transactional leadership. Results from multi-linear regression analysis showed that five of the eight dimensions of TI significantly predict self-reported leadership effectiveness, which is defined by three variables: work unit performance, subordinate effort and subordinate satisfaction. Moreover, these relationships were also demonstrated when both transformational and transactional leadership variables were entered into the regression equation. These results were interpreted to suggest that TI offers a further means for understanding how to achieve a higher level of leadership effectiveness than that accounted for by notions of transformational and transactional leadership.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: BF Psychology