Title:

On the growth of permutation classes

We study aspects of the enumeration of permutation classes, sets of permutations closed downwards under the subpermutation order. First, we consider monotone grid classes of permutations. We present procedures for calculating the generating function of any class whose matrix has dimensions m × 1 for some m, and of acyclic and unicyclic classes of gridded permutations. We show that almost all large permutations in a grid class have the same shape, and determine this limit shape. We prove that the growth rate of a grid class is given by the square of the spectral radius of an associated graph and deduce some facts relating to the set of grid class growth rates. In the process, we establish a new result concerning tours on graphs. We also prove a similar result relating the growth rate of a geometric grid class to the matching polynomial of a graph, and determine the effect of edge subdivision on the matching polynomial. We characterise the growth rates of geometric grid classes in terms of the spectral radii of trees. We then investigate the set of growth rates of permutation classes and establish a new upper bound on the value above which every real number is the growth rate of some permutation class. In the process, we prove new results concerning expansions of real numbers in noninteger bases in which the digits are drawn from sets of allowed values. Finally, we introduce a new enumeration technique, based on associating a graph with each permutation, and determine the generating functions for some previously unenumerated classes. We conclude by using this approach to provide an improved lower bound on the growth rate of the class of permutations avoiding the pattern 1324. In the process, we prove that, asymptotically, patterns in Łukasiewicz paths exhibit a concentrated Gaussian distribution.
