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Title: Unconditionally stable finite difference time domain methods for frequency dependent media
Author: Rouf, Hasan
Awarding Body: University of Manchester
Current Institution: University of Manchester
Date of Award: 2010
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The efficiency of the conventional, explicit finite difference time domain (FDTD)method is constrained by the upper limit on the temporal discretization, imposed by the Courant–Friedrich–Lewy (CFL) stability condition. Therefore, there is a growing interest in overcoming this limitation by employing unconditionally stable FDTD methods for which time-step and space-step can be independently chosen. Unconditionally stable Crank Nicolson method has not been widely used in time domain electromagnetics despite its high accuracy and low anisotropy. There has been no work on the Crank Nicolson FDTD (CN–FDTD) method for frequency dependent medium. In this thesis a new three-dimensional frequency dependent CN–FDTD (FD–CN–FDTD) method is proposed. Frequency dependency of single–pole Debye materials is incorporated into the CN–FDTD method by means of an auxiliary differential formulation. In order to provide a convenient and straightforward algorithm, Mur’s first-order absorbing boundary conditions are used in the FD–CN–FDTD method. Numerical tests validate and confirm that the FD–CN–FDTD method is unconditionally stable beyond the CFL limit. The proposed method yields a sparse system of linear equations which can be solved by direct or iterative methods, but numerical experiments demonstrate that for large problems of practical importance iterative solvers are to be used. The FD–CN–FDTD sparse matrix is diagonally dominant when the time-stepis near the CFL limit but the diagonal dominance of the matrix deteriorates with the increase of the time-step, making the solution time longer. Selection of the matrix solver to handle the FD–CN–FDTD sparse system is crucial to fully harness the advantages of using larger time-step, because the computational costs associated with the solver must be kept as low as possible. Two best–known iterative solvers, Bi-Conjugate Gradient Stabilised (BiCGStab) and Generalised Minimal Residual (GMRES), are extensively studied in terms of the number of iteration requirements for convergence, CPU time and memory requirements. BiCGStab outperforms GMRES in every aspect. Many of these findings do not match with the existing literature on frequency–independent CN–FDTD method and the possible reasons for this are pointed out. The proposed method is coded in Fortran and major implementation techniques of the serial code as well as its parallel implementation in Open Multi-Processing (OpenMP) are presented. As an application, a simulation model of the human body is developed in the FD–CN–FDTD method and numerical simulation of the electromagnetic wave propagation inside the human head is shown. Finally, this thesis presents a new method modifying the frequency dependent alternating direction implicit FDTD (FD–ADI–FDTD) method. Although the ADI–FDTD method provides a computationally affordable approximation of the CN–FDTD method, it exhibits a loss of accuracy with respect to the CN-FDTD method which may become severe for some practical applications. The modified FD–ADI–FDTD method can improve the accuracy of the normal FD–ADI–FDTD method without significantly increasing the computational costs.
Supervisor: Costen, Fumie Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Finite difference time domain (FDTD) method ; Crank Nicolson method ; Alternating direction implicit (ADI)-FDTD method ; Frequency dependent materials ; Sparse matrix solvers ; Bioelectromagnetics