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Title: Evolution of the early Himalayan foreland basin in N.W. India and its relationship to Himalayan orogenesis
Author: Najman, Yanina Manya Rachel
Awarding Body: University of Edinburgh
Current Institution: University of Edinburgh
Date of Award: 1995
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The Himalayan mountain chain formed between 65-40 Ma due to the closure of the Tethyan ocean and the subsequent collision of the Indian and Eurasian plates. This collision and continued plate convergence resulted in crustal thickening, southerly propagating thrust stacking, and two main periods of Barrovian metamorphism: an early 'Eo-Himalayan' metamorphism and a later Himalayan metamorphism, synchronous with a major period of thrust stacking at ca. 21 Ma. Formation of the orogen loaded the Indian plate and caused downwarping and development of a foreland basin to the south. The sedimentary rocks within the foreland basin are the Subathu Formation of Palaeocene-Mid Eocene age, the Dagshai Formation of Upper Eocene-Oligocene age, and the Kasauli Formation of lowest Miocene age. These sediments form a conformable statigraphic sequence. The Subathu Formation sediments are marine deposits, consisting of dominantly mudstones in the lower part of the succession, with limestone becoming more prominent higher up. Terrigenous material is present in minor amounts. The Dagshai Formation sediments are clastic red beds, with mudstones dominating at the base of the sequence and sandstones increasing in proportion higher up the succession. They are interpreted as being of continental origin, laid down under semi-arid conditions in a distal alluvial fan and meandering fluvial setting. The Kasuali Formation sediments are dominantly grey sandstones. Like the Dagshai Formation, they are of continental origin, but the climate had changed from semi-arid to humid by that time. The Kasauli Formation sediments are interpreted as being the product of deposition in a braided fluvial, alluvial fan environment. After deposition, the sediments were incorporated into a southward propagating imbricate thrust stack. The early foreland basin sediments are now found at three structural levels within the thrust stack; the highest structural level restores furthest to the north while the lowest structural level restores furthest to the south.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available