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Title: Animal trypanosomiasis in the Eastern Province of Zambia : epidemiology in the recently-settled areas and evaluation of a novel method for control
Author: Mubanga, Joseph
Awarding Body: University of Edinburgh
Current Institution: University of Edinburgh
Date of Award: 2009
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Factors affecting the epidemiology and impact of trypanosomiasis in livestock were studied in households in Mambwe District in an area extending from the Luangwa river valley to the edge of the eastern plateau. A structured questionnaire survey on demography, migration and farm activities of householders showed that about 84% of the households depended on farming for their income, mainly cotton growing. A cross-sectional study of 649 cattle, 811 goats, 58 sheep and 177 pigs in these households used Giemsa-stained blood smears and ITS-PCR amplification for diagnosis of trypanosomiasis. Prevalence was highest in cattle (28.4% [95% CI: 23.7-33.5]) followed by pigs (21.5% [13.9-31.8]), sheep (18.2% [5.1-47.7]), and goats (9.2% [6.8-12.4]). The prevalence within households depended on the particular combinations of livestock species kept; small ruminants were more likely to be infected if cattle were also present. In cattle, prevalence ranged from 26.3% (CI: 19.6-34.2) above 700m above sea level to 44.1% (CI: 36.9-51.6) below 600m. Trypanosoma congolense (savannah type)) was identified in 82.4% of all trypanosome-infected cattle, T. vivax in 24.5%, T. brucei in 2.7%. Trypanosoma simiae was only identified in pigs (27.8% of infected pigs). Finally, ‘restricted application’, a novel modality of use of synthetic pyrethroid to control both tsetse- and tick-borne diseases of cattle was investigated in a longitudinal intervention study in 12 villages in Petauke District on the eastern plateau. Baseline data showed that trypanosomiasis was more prevalent in villages in the northern part of the study are while theileriosis was more prevalent in southern villages. Existing infection of trypanosomes were treated with two doses of diminazene aceturate 42 and 14 days prior to interventions. Spraying only the limbs, belly (predilection feeding sites of tsetse) and ears (predilection feeding site of Rhipicephalus species ticks) of cattle with dilute deltamethrin, was compared with conventional pour-on application of deltamethrin, trypanocidal chemoprophylaxis using isometamidium chloride, and non-intervention controls. Each intervention (or non-intervention) was applied to 80cattle in each of 3 villages, monthly (deltamethrin) or just once (isometamidium). The subsequent incidence of trypanosome infection was too low to make a meaningful conclusion on the interventions. Nevertheless, restricted application had significant effect on tick infestations and animals treated with deltamethrin showed lower cumulative incidence of Theileria species.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available