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Title: Micro-optics for opto-genetic neuro-stimulation with micro-LED arrays
Author: Chaudet, Lionel
ISNI:       0000 0004 5349 119X
Awarding Body: Imperial College London
Current Institution: Imperial College London
Date of Award: 2014
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The breakthrough discovery of a nanoscale optically gated ion channel protein, Channelrhodopsin 2 (ChR2), in combination with a genetically expressed optically activated ion pump, Halorhodopsin, allowed the direct stimulation and inhibition of individual action potentials with light alone. This thesis describes the development of optics and micro-optics which when used with micro-led array sources, collects and projects light efficiently and uniformly onto such opto-genetically modified specimens. When used with enhanced light gated ion channels and pumps these systems allow us to further our understanding of both brain and visual systems. Micro-LED arrays permit spatio-temporal control of neuron stimulation on sub-millisecond timescales. However, micro-led arrays are disadvantaged by the broad-angular spread of their light emission and their low spatial fill factor. We present the design of macro and micro-optics systems for use with a micro-LED arrays consisting of a matrix of 25μm diameter micro-LEDs with 150 or 80μm centre-to-centre spacing. On one system, the micro-LED array is imaged onto off-the-shelf micro-optics using macro-optics and in the other system; micro-LED array and custom micro-optics are optimised and integrated together. The two systems are designed to improve the fill-factor from 2% to more than 78% by capturing a larger fraction of the LED emission and directing it correctly to the sample plane. This approach allows low fill factor arrays to be used effectively, which in turn has benefits in terms of thermal management and electrical drive from CMOS backplane electronics. These systems were implemented as an independent set that could be connected to a variety of different microscopes available for Patch-clamp and Multi-electrode measurements. As well, the feasibility of an eye prosthesis was tested using virtual reality optics and a fake eye to stimulate ganglion cells and by doing in-vivo stimulation of the genetically modified retina of a mouse.
Supervisor: Neil, Mark Sponsor: European Union
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available