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Title: The role of the G-protein subunit, G-α-11, and the adaptor protein 2 sigma subunit, ap2-σ-2, in the regulation of calcium homeostasis
Author: Howles, Sarah Anne
ISNI:       0000 0004 5362 7261
Awarding Body: University of Oxford
Current Institution: University of Oxford
Date of Award: 2015
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The calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) is a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) that plays a central role in calcium homeostasis. Loss-of-function mutations of the CaSR cause familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia type 1 (FHH1), whilst gain-of-function mutations are associated with autosomal dominant hypocalcaemia (ADH). However, 35% of cases of FHH and 60% of cases of ADH are not due to CaSR mutations. This thesis demonstrates that FHH type 2 (FHH2) and the new clinical disorder, ADH type 2 (ADH2), are due to loss- and gain-of-function mutations in the G-protein subunit, Gα11, respectively. The CaSR signals through Gα11 and FHH2-associated mutations are shown to exert their effects through haploinsufficiency. Three-dimensional modelling of ADH2-associated Gα11 mutations predicts impaired GTPase activity and increases in the rate of GDP/GTP exchange. Furthermore, mouse models of FHH2 and ADH2 have been identified and re-derived to enable in vivo studies of the role of Gα11 in calcium homeostasis. I also demonstrate that FHH3 is due to loss-of-function mutations in the adaptor protein 2 sigma subunit, AP2σ2, which exert dominant-negative effects. AP2σ2 is a component of the adaptor protein 2 (AP2), which is a crucial component of clathrin-coated vesicles (CCV) and facilitates clathrin-mediated endocytosis of plasma membrane components such as GPCRs. All of the identified FHH3-associated mutations affect the Arg15 residue of AP2σ2, which forms key polar contacts with CCV cargo proteins. This thesis proposes that FHH3-associated AP2σ2 mutations impair CaSR internalisation and thus negatively impact on CaSR signalling. In addition, these studies show that these signalling defects can be rectified by the use of the CaSR allosteric modulator cinacalcet, which may represent a useful therapeutic modality for FHH3 patients. In summary, FHH2 is due to loss-of-function mutations in Gα11 causing haploinsufficiency, whilst FHH3 is due to loss-of-function mutations in AP2σ2, which exert dominant-negative effects. In contrast, ADH2 is due to gain-of-function mutations in Gα11.
Supervisor: Thakker, Rajesh V.; Hamdy, Freddie; Galione, Antony; Piret, Sian Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Endocrinology ; Genetics (life sciences) ; Medical Sciences ; Calcium sensing receptor ; G protein coupled receptor