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Title: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and their impact upon the biosynthesis of endocannabinoids and N-acylethanolamines in human skin cells in the presence and absence of ultraviolet radiation
Author: Almaedani, Abdalla
ISNI:       0000 0004 5360 8984
Awarding Body: University of Manchester
Current Institution: University of Manchester
Date of Award: 2015
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Endocannabinoids are endogenous lipid mediators involved in various biological processes, and have immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activities. Anandamide (arachidonoyl ethanolamine, AEA) and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) are the main representatives of this group. The endocannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 with AEA have been found in human HaCaT keratinocytes and fibroblasts, but the metabolic pathway leading to endocannabinoid production in the skin has not been fully elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the profile of endocannabinoids and their main metabolizing enzymes in human skin cells and assess whether omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) altered these profiles. In addition, an investigation was carried out to check whether UV radiation could stimulate the production of endocannabinoids and N-acylethanolamines (NAE) in human skin cells. For this purpose HaCaT keratinocytes and 46RB.1N fibroblast cells were treated with 10 and 50µM of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or oleic acid (OA) in the presence or absence of UVR (15mJ/cm2). Data suggest that n-3 PUFA may both directly (by up-regulating NAPE-PLD levels) and indirectly (by decreasing FAAH levels) increased endocannabinoid and NAE levels in HaCaT keratinocytes and 46BR.IN fibroblasts. DHA treatment significantly decreased COX-2 expression in the absence of UVR and inhibited UVR-induced COX-2 overexpression in 46BR.IN fibroblasts. In contrast, DHA appeared to induce COX-2 up-regulation in the absence of UVR and did not prevent UVR induced COX-2 up-regulation in HaCaT keratinocytes. EPA appeared to induce COX-2 down-regulation in the absence of UVR and did not prevent UVR induced COX-2 up-regulation in both HaCaT keratinocytes and 46BR.IN fibroblasts. UVR did not have any significant effect on endocannabinoid and NAE biosynthesis. However, UVR induced endocannabinoid production in some experiments of this study. A clinical study was carried on 16 volunteers from two different ethnic groups and two different skin types. The purpose was to assess the effect of UVR on the serum endocannabinoids and NAE, therefore, the volunteers were subjected to multiple doses (1.3, SED/ 6 min) of UVR for 6 weeks. Data showed that UVR did not have major effect on human serum NAE in both skin phototypes II and V but increased 2-AG in human serum in both skin types but the more pronounced effect was evident in skin phototypes V rather than in skin phototypes II. Human serum docosahxaenoylethanolamide levels were found to be higher in White Caucasians group (skin phototypes II). Based on these it can be concluded that n-3 PUFA and UVR alter the endocannabinoids and NAE profile in HaCaT keratinocytes and 46BR.IN fibroblasts. In addition, results of the clinical study indicated that UVR has no major effects on serum endocannabinoids or NAE therefore, further studies are required to address this question in vivo.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Libyan Ministry of Higher Education
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Endocannabinoids, N-acylethanolamines, Anandamide, 2-arachidonoyl glycerol, NAPE-PLD, FAAH, Omega-3 PUFA, UVR, HaCaT keratinocytes and 46BR.IN fibroblasts