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Title: Effects of remote ischaemic preconditioning on peri-operative myocardial injury and clinical outcomes in patients undergoing elective cardiac bypass surgery
Author: Candilio, L.
ISNI:       0000 0004 5359 4703
Awarding Body: University College London (University of London)
Current Institution: University College London (University of London)
Date of Award: 2015
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Ischaemic heart disease (IHD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery is the revascularisation strategy of choice in a significant number of patients, particularly those with diabetes mellitus and complex coronary disease. During cardiac surgery, the myocardium is subjected to peri-operative myocardial injury (PMI), which has been associated with worse short and long-term clinical outcomes. Higher-risks patients are currently being operated on with subsequent higher risk of PMI and worse prognosis: therefore new strategies are required to potentiate the innate mechanisms of cardioprotection. In this regard, remote ischaemic preconditioning (RIPC) is a promising non-invasive intervention able to reduce PMI in these patients: however, not all the studies have shown significant cardioprotection with RIPC for a number of factors, amongst which the intensity of the preconditioning stimulus may play a significant role. We therefore investigated whether an enhanced RIPC stimulus, given with transient simultaneous multi-limb ischaemia/reperfusion, was able to reduce PMI and improve short-term clinical outcomes in patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery: we demonstrated that our preconditioning stimulus can significantly reduce PMI, length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay and incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) in these patients. In addition, further retrospective analyses showed improved myocardial protection in preconditioned diabetic patients undergoing CABG surgery and in control CABG subjects receiving combined antegrade and retrograde cardioplegia compared to control CABG patients having antegrade cardioplegia or intermittent cross-clamp-fibrillation. We also conducted a multi-centre, double-blinded randomised control clinical trial, in which we investigated the effects of RIPC on clinical outcomes at 1 year in high-risk patients undergoing elective CABG surgery with or without valve surgery (the ERICCA trial). The results of this study are due to be presented in March 2015 and have the potential to significantly impact on clinical practice in cardiac surgery.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available