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Title: The trade and production of garum and its role in the provincial economy of Hispania Tarraconensis
Author: Lowe, Benedict James
Awarding Body: University of Edinburgh
Current Institution: University of Edinburgh
Date of Award: 1997
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Fish has formed an important component of man's diet since the Neolithic and considerable emphasis was placed upon the acquisition of fresh fish by the Roman aristocracy. However the increased demands created by the establishment of urbanism in the Phoenician colonies of S. Spain in the Eighth Century BC necessitated the adoption of preservative methods, namely the use of salt. Salted fish and fish sauces seem to have been a ubiquituous feature of the ancient diet being traded by the Phoenicians but becoming particularly important following the Greek penetration of the Peninsula in the Sixth Century BC. Production centred in Andalucia and seems to have survived the Roman conquest. Increased investment by Italian aristocrats led to the creation of Romanised villae in Cataluna which by the mid First Century BC engaged in the production of wine. By the Augustan period, however, Tarraconensian exports increased with the opening up of the annona militaris and the city of Rome. Although wine was the principal recipient, fish sauce seems to have been carried as a secondary commodity. The interrelationship between fish sauce and other produce is seen also in its inclusion within the villa economy. Production seems to have occurred on a sufficient scale to be termed 'industrial' and to judge by the names of producers and merchants attested on amphorae attracted considerable wealth, many of those involved also producing wine. The breakdown of the relationship between town and country and the gradual movement of wealth away from the region meant that the province's commercial interests contracted and although the production of fish sauce continued until the Seventh Century AD it served only to satisfy local demand.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available