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Title: Continuous dimensional emotion tracking in music
Author: Imbrasaite, Vaiva
ISNI:       0000 0004 5354 9443
Awarding Body: University of Cambridge
Current Institution: University of Cambridge
Date of Award: 2015
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The size of easily-accessible libraries of digital music recordings is growing every day, and people need new and more intuitive ways of managing them, searching through them and discovering new music. Musical emotion is a method of classification that people use without thinking and it therefore could be used for enriching music libraries to make them more user-friendly, evaluating new pieces or even for discovering meaningful features for automatic composition. The field of Emotion in Music is not new: there has been a lot of work done in musicology, psychology, and other fields. However, automatic emotion prediction in music is still at its infancy and often lacks that transfer of knowledge from the other fields surrounding it. This dissertation explores automatic continuous dimensional emotion prediction in music and shows how various findings from other areas of Emotion and Music and Affective Computing can be translated and used for this task. There are four main contributions. Firstly, I describe a study that I conducted which focused on evaluation metrics used to present the results of continuous emotion prediction. So far, the field lacks consensus on which metrics to use, making the comparison of different approaches near impossible. In this study, I investigated people’s intuitively preferred evaluation metric, and, on the basis of the results, suggested some guidelines for the analysis of the results of continuous emotion recognition algorithms. I discovered that root-mean-squared error (RMSE) is significantly preferable to the other metrics explored for the one dimensional case, and it has similar preference ratings to correlation coefficient in the two dimensional case. Secondly, I investigated how various findings from the field of Emotion in Music can be used when building feature vectors for machine learning solutions to the problem. I suggest some novel feature vector representation techniques, testing them on several datasets and several machine learning models, showing the advantage they can bring. Some of the suggested feature representations can reduce RMSE by up to 19% when compared to the standard feature representation, and up to 10-fold improvement for non-squared correlation coefficient. Thirdly, I describe Continuous Conditional Random Fields and Continuous Conditional Neural Fields (CCNF) and introduce their use for the problem of continuous dimensional emotion recognition in music, comparing them with Support Vector Regression. These two models incorporate some of the temporal information that the standard bag-of-frames approaches lack, and are therefore capable of improving the results. CCNF can reduce RMSE by up to 20% when compared to Support Vector Regression, and can increase squared correlation for the valence axis by up to 40%. Finally, I describe a novel multi-modal approach to continuous dimensional music emotion recognition. The field so far has focused solely on acoustic analysis of songs, while in this dissertation I show how the separation of vocals and music and the analysis of lyrics can be used to improve the performance of such systems. The separation of music and vocals can improve the results by up to 10% with a stronger impact on arousal, when compared to a system that uses only acoustic analysis of the whole signal, and the addition of the analysis of lyrics can provide a similar improvement to the results of the valence model.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
Keywords: Continuous emotion tracking in music ; Automatic music analysis ; Applied machine learning ; Sentiment analysis of lyrics ; Computer Science