Use this URL to cite or link to this record in EThOS: http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.647619
Title: Applications of layered double hydroxides as inorganic adjuvants
Author: Buckley, Hannah C.
ISNI:       0000 0004 5367 659X
Awarding Body: University of Oxford
Current Institution: University of Oxford
Date of Award: 2014
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Abstract:
The primary aim of this thesis is to explore the immunostimulatory properties of a family of layered, crystalline, inorganic materials known as layered double hydroxides (LDHs). Chapter One provides an introduction to relevant aspects of the immune system, and the context for investigating the immunostimulatory properties of inorganic materials in terms of vaccine/adjuvant formulations. The possible mechanisms of action of commercial adjuvant materials are also reviewed, and the structure, synthesis methods and applications of LDHs are discussed. Chapter Two details the controlled synthesis and characterisation of LDHs in specific particle sizes. A series of MgAl-CO3 LDHs with precisely controlled particle sizes ranging from 20 to 10000 nm were successfully synthesised, then the techniques used were extended to other compositions to create a panel of LDHs for use in subsequent Chapters. In Chapter Three, the responses of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (Mo-DC) to the LDH particle sizes discussed in Chapter Two are assessed in terms of viability, surface molecule expression, and cytokine secretion. A statistical modelling approach using the physicochemical properties of the LDHs as explanatory variables for immune responses was employed to evaluate the validity of the model formulated in the previous work, and to establish if particle size could be used to improve its predictive ability. It was found that strong relationships between LDH particle size and certain Mo-DC responses exist, and that these responses could be predicted with a high degree of accuracy. Chapter Four is concerned with the investigation of T cell responses to LDH-stimulated allogeneic Mo-DC. Various methods were used for assessing T cell division and proliferation, and a protocol for intracellular cytokine staining was developed to probe T cell polarisation. Five LDHs, which have elicited potentially interesting T cell responses in previous work, were selected for investigation. However, using the assays described, no discernible improvement in proliferation or polarisation was observed with any of the LDHs tested. Chapter Five presents an initial exploration of the interactions between LDH particles and cells. Experiments have shown that LDH particles both adhere to and are internalised by Mo-DC. Variations in the extent of internalisation with both particle size and composition were highlighted by confocal microscopy studies. Through investigations into interactions between LDH particles and the plasma membrane using protease enzymes, it was revealed that adhesion of LDH particles is partly protein-dependent. Further studies have also demonstrated a pH-dependent element to particle association with Mo-DC. Details of the experimental procedures employed are included in Chapter Six. Supplementary information referred to in the main thesis may be found in the Appendices.
Supervisor: O'Hare, Dermot Sponsor: Engineering & Physical Sciences Research Council
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID: uk.bl.ethos.647619  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Inorganic chemistry ; Nanomaterials ; Immunology ; layered double hydroxide ; adjuvant ; dendritic cell
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