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Title: Effects of alloying elements on twinning in alpha-titanium alloys
Author: Fitzner, Arnas Gerald
ISNI:       0000 0004 4692 1331
Awarding Body: University of Manchester
Current Institution: University of Manchester
Date of Award: 2015
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It has been found that commercially pure (CP) Titanium (Ti) undergoes substantial amount of deformation twinning during plastic forming in a wide range of temperatures and strain rates giving CP-Ti good ductility and allowing up to 90% thickness reduction by cold rolling. Aluminium (Al) rich ! Ti-alloys lack this superior ductility but exhibit therefore up to five times higher yield strength, which was connected experimentally to reduced activity of deformation twinning with addition of Al to Ti. Ultimately this is also valid in the ! phase of two-phase alloys such as Ti6Al4V and thought to be key to the reduced ductility in Al rich alloys. It is to date unclear if ordering of Al in the Ti matrix, a change in the stacking fault energy (SFE) with alloying or a transition of the cellular dislocation structures in CP-Ti to planar slip patterns at high Al contents reduces twin activity. The focus of this dissertation project is therefore the transition of microstructural details and the deformation structures in the ! phase with increasing Al concentration. For simplified investigations binary Ti-Al alloys containing 3.5, 7, 10 and 13at.% Al have been created with comparable grain morphology and texture within this study. For a better understanding of the role of Al also binary Ti-Sn (Tin) alloys (1 & 3.4at.% Sn) and Ti-Zr (Zirconium) alloys (3.6 & 10at.%) as well as an Oxygen (O) rich Ti-10at.%Al and the industrial compositions of Ti6Al4V were produced on the same route and investigated by the same methods. This alloy range allows evaluation of the effects of the c/a ratio, ordering phenomena and the SFE on the twin activity. The knowledge was finally transferred to industrially forged CP-Ti and Ti5Al2.5Sn. TEM and neutron diffraction confirmed the onset of Ti3Al formation from Al concentrations above 7at.% (4wt%), but no ordering of Zr or Sn atoms was found after solution treatments. The evolution of lattice strain and lattice reorientation due to twinning with increasing compressive strain was captured by in-situ experiments under neutron diffraction at Engin-X, ISIS. Post-mortem EBSD micro and macro texture mappings revealed that the twin fraction in Al reduces above a critical concentration of 7at.% (4wt%), which was enhanced with increasing ordering towards Ti3Al. Sn and Zr addition showed no significant effect on the overall twin fraction, but increased twin numbers with facilitated nucleation and impeded twin growth, which may be related to the SFE. Increasing slip planarity and a transition from prismatic slip towards basal slip with addition of Al was found with means of Digital image correlation (DIC). DIC also revealed intense prismatic slip in grains undergoing !"!! tension twinning and virtually barely any strain accumulation within a twin below 9% plastic strain, rationalised by much increased nanohardness in the twin in comparison to the parent. Nanoindentation also revealed that alloying with Al reduces the crystal anisotropy. Finally it is believed that ordering and the closely related transition of slip patterns lead to the reduction in twin activity, while c/a ratio, crystal anisotropy and SFE seem less important.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: EPSRC ; TIMET
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Ti-Al ; Titanium ; EBSD ; Neutron ; Digital image correlation ; Nano indentation ; binary alloys