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Title: Hereditary colorectal cancer : registration, screening and prognostic biomarker analysis
Author: Barrow, Paul
ISNI:       0000 0004 5366 8477
Awarding Body: University of Manchester
Current Institution: University of Manchester
Date of Award: 2015
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Aims: The purpose of the research was to investigate the benefits of a hereditary colorectal cancer registry in the management of patients and families with Lynch syndrome. In study one, a systematic review was performed to quantify the impact of registration and screening on colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality, with comparison between familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and Lynch syndrome (LS). In study two, a regional Lynch syndrome registry was utilised to evaluate the uptake of predictive testing and colorectal screening among first-degree relatives (FDRs) and investigate novel methods for engaging at-risk relatives, including an enhanced role for the general practitioner (GP). In study three, the registry was used to investigate proposed associations between Lynch syndrome and prostate and bladder cancer. In study four, mismatch repair-deficient (dMMR) CRCs from Lynch syndrome patients and randomised-controlled trials (RCTs) were used to evaluate a novel prognostic biomarker, beta-2 microglobulin (B2M). Methods: An electronic database search was conducted to identify studies describing CRC incidence and/or mortality in FAP or LS, with comparison of either: 1) screened and unscreened patients or 2) patients ‘before and after’ establishment of the registry. Using the Manchester regional Lynch syndrome registry database, the uptake of predictive testing and colorectal screening among FDRs was assessed with Kaplan-Meier analysis. Novel strategies for improving engagement were explored via a patient advisory group discussion and a regional primary care questionnaire. Cases of prostate and bladder cancer in male mutation carriers and their male FDRs were identified, and cumulative and relative risks were calculated, using expected rates from cancer registry data. DNA from 350 dMMR CRC specimens from Lynch syndrome patients and RCTs were tested for B2M mutations using Sanger sequencing, and correlated with clinical outcome. Results: 43 studies were included in the systematic review (33 FAP; 10 Lynch). Registry-based screening was associated with a significant reduction in CRC incidence and in Lynch syndrome, CRC-related mortality was negligible in those undergoing surveillance. 242 Lynch syndrome families were recorded on the Manchester Lynch syndrome registry. 329 of 591 (55.7%) eligible FDRs had undergone predictive testing. Uptake was significantly lower in males and younger age groups (<25 yrs). Compliance with colorectal screening was excellent following a mutation positive predictive test but poor in untested individuals (97.3% vs 35.0%). Eight prostate cancers were identified in 821 male LS mutation carriers and male FDRs. MSH2 mutation carriers had a ten-fold increased risk of prostate cancer (RR 10.41; 95%CI 2.80, 26.65) but no association with bladder cancer was identified. 69/286 (24.1%) of dMMR CRCs contained significant B2M mutations. B2M mutations were associated with complete absence of recurrence (0/39) during follow-up in the QUASAR trial (stage II), compared with 14/77 (18.2%) in wild-type B2M (p=0.005). Conclusion: Studies consistently report that registration and screening result in a reduction of CRC incidence and mortality in FAP and LS (Level 2a evidence, Grade B recommendation). Funding and managerial support for registries should be made available. Uptake of predictive testing and colorectal screening in Lynch syndrome could be substantially improved, particularly among males and younger age groups, but this requires advances in communication with at-risk relatives. It is unlikely that GPs will actively participate without considerable support from genetics services. A trial of PSA screening in MSH2 mutation carriers from 50 years would be appropriate. B2M mutation status has potential clinical utility as a prognostic biomarker in stage II dMMR CRC.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (M.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Colorectal cancer ; Lynch syndrome ; Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer ; mismatch repair deficiency ; registration ; screening ; colonoscopy ; prostate cancer ; beta-2 microglobulin