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Title: An outline of the historical development of the education systems of Chile, Peru and Venezuela and some implications for their harmonization according to the guidelines of the Andres Bello Agreement
Author: Costa, P.
Awarding Body: University of Edinburgh
Current Institution: University of Edinburgh
Date of Award: 1981
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Abstract:
In the Latin American context several economic integrationist processes have arisen during the last two decades, which seek to consolidate economic and political unity as well as search for a new international order. To this end the Latin American Free Trade Association, the Central American Common Market, the Caribbean Free Trade Association and the Andean Pact or Agreement of Cartagena signed by Bolivia, Colombia, Chile, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela were instituted. On 30th June 1969 the Andres Bello Agreement (ABA) was signed. It resulted from wishes to reinforce the integrationist economic efforts of the Andean Pact through culture, education and science. The ABA sees the integration of the educational systems of the signatory countries as a key element in pursuit of complete integration. Through the study of the historical development of the educational systems of Chile, Peru and Venezuela, this essay examines the extent to which it is possible to achieve educational integration and the steps taken towards the goal. The first chapter describes the Andres Bello Agreement, its origins, content and organization. Since it would not be possible to analyse and comment on the ABA without describing the economic integrationist efforts made at Latin American and Andean level, an attempt to do so is also included in this chapter. Chapters II, III and IV are devoted to Chile, Peru and Venezuela. Chile was selected because several issues make this nation different from other Andean countries. It has an apparently higher level of economic development and its education system appears to be more developed thanks to the liberal democracy established in the last century. Other factors peculiar to Chile are the introduction of educational reforms modelled on French, German and United States patterns, and its less severe bilingual educational problem. Most of the problems related to underdevelopment, poverty and deprivation are concentrated in Peru's socioeconomic and political life. There is a high rate of illiteracy, unbalanced economic development, poor sanitary and health conditions and so on. There are also over a million of "quechua" speakers most of whom are peasants still using Inca methods of irrigation and cultivation. In modern times Peru has been characterised as a violent country, whose typical form of government has been military dictatorships and whose educational advance has been minimal. In 1968 the Armed Forces took control of the country once again. This time several social reforms were introduced, among them a Educational Reform that seeks to solve the Peruvian educational problems with a different approach. The setting of this reform and its possible influence in the Andean Region have motivated me to choose Perd. Chapter IV is devoted to Venezuela, whose oil wealth, the overthrow of the dictatorship and the establishment of a democracy have been the main features during the last fifty years of this country's socioeconomic life. The exploitation of oil and other raw materials have allowed Venezuela to experience a fast rate of economic growth. But despite this economic growth and its resultant higher income per capita, the more severe problems concerned with underdevelopment remain unsolved. A considerable number of illiterates, a low school average, as well as a considerable pupil drop out, made Venezuela an example of the problems that face the educational systems attempted to be integrated by the ABA. Chapter V describes and analyses the actual feasibility of integration of the Andean Region educational systems. Finally, some conclusions and recommendations are made in Chapter VI.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID: uk.bl.ethos.645015  DOI: Not available
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